|Form of government
||democratic constitutional monarchy
||UTC + 6 h
|Telephone area code
The Kingdom of Bhutan is located in the Himalayas and
borders with Tibet ( China ) in the north, with India in
the east, south and west. With an area of 47,000 km²,
the country is slightly larger than Switzerland.
Bhutan is mostly mountainous. The north is part of
the High Himalayas with peaks over 7,000 m high, the
highest are Kula Kangri at 7,554 m and Chomo Lhari at
7,314 m. To the south is the Vorderhimalaja, the summit
of which is between 2,000 and 4,000 m high. The wide
fertile valleys that run from north to south structure
the landscape and are the most important settlement
areas in Bhutan. In the extreme south of the country on
the border with India lies the Duars plain, which is an
extension of the Ganges-Brahmaputra lowlands.
Although the country is only relatively small, there
are major climatic differences: In northern Bhutan there
is a high mountain climate with zones of perpetual ice
and very different rainfall (up to 5,000 mm on the
southern slopes and less than 250 mm on the northern
slopes ). The snowfall limit is around 5,500 m. In the
Vorderhimalaja there is a cool temperate climate with
monsoon rain (rainy season May to September). The
capital Thimphu is located in this area, mean January
temperatures of 0 กใ C are measured, in July about 17 กใ
C. The average rainfall in this area is around 1,000 mm.
In the extreme south of the country, in the Duars plain,
there is a subtropical monsu climate. The average
temperature in January is around 17 กใ C, in July around
28 กใ C. The annual rainfall is 2,000 mm (rainy season
May to September).
Flora and fauna
The country's vegetation also differs according to
the different climate zones. Overall, more than two
thirds of the country's area is forested: While summer
green monsoon forests can be found in the south of the
country, coniferous and deciduous forests grow in the
Vorderhimalaja. Alpine mats grow from a height of around
The country offers a suitable habitat for animals
that have become rare in other countries, such as the
collar bear and the rhinoceros. The endangered snow
leopard is found in the mountain regions.
A total of around 670,000 people live in the Kingdom
of Bhutan. The largest and most significant population
group are the Bhotia (50%), over 35% of the population
belong to Nepalese peoples. Members of Indian ethnic
groups live in the south. According to COUNTRYAAH,
the largest city is the
capital Thimphu with about 70,000 residents
Buddhism in Lamaistic form is the state religion in
Bhutan, around 75% of the population are followers of
this belief. The second largest religious community are
the Hindus (around 24%), the Muslim minority are the
Muslims (1%). The official language in the kingdom is
Dzongkha, Nepali and English are also spoken.
The standard of living of the population is very low,
there is no state social security, the healthcare system
is inadequately developed. Per capita income is around $
2,000 a year. Life expectancy averages 65 years, and
child mortality is relatively high at around 5%. The
overall literacy rate is only around 47% (women: 34%),
although school attendance is free.
Bhutan has been a democratic constitutional monarchy
since 2008. King has been Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk
since December 2006. The head of government (since July
2013 Tshering Tobgay) heads the cabinet, which has to be
appointed by the king. The legislature consists of two
chambers: the National Council (Upper House) with 20
elected and five elected representatives from the King
and the National Assembly (Lower House) with 47 members
elected by the people.
The parties are the royalist "Druk Phuensum Tshogpa"
(DPT, Peace and Wealth Party) and the "People's
Democratic Party" (PDP).
The country is divided into 20 districts
Bhutan has long been one of the poorest countries in
the world in terms of per capita income, but has
benefited from economic growth in recent years, which
averaged 8%. However, growing prosperity is unevenly
distributed. Central and Eastern Bhutan have lagged
significantly in development compared to the west of the
country. The country's economy is closely linked to that
of neighboring India. Bhutan receives economic aid from
Agriculture generates 15% of gross domestic product
(GDP), well over half of the workforce works here,
mostly in small subsistence farms. Mainly rice, barley,
maize and millet are grown, and fruit and spices are
also exported. Forestry is also important for export.
Sheep and cattle (including house yaks) are bred in
There are only a few industrial companies in Bhutan.
In addition to the food and wood processing industries,
the production of cement is significant. The country's
energy needs can be met by hydropower, and electricity
is also exported to India and Bangladesh. Coal, ores and
slate are among the mineral resources that are
increasingly being developed. The biggest problem in the
development of the industrial sector is the lack of
trained workers. India plays the largest role as a
trading partner in both exports and imports.
Tourism was of little importance to the Kingdom of
Bhutan for a long time, but has increased in the recent
past. It is currently the second largest source of
income in the country. The main countries of origin for
visitors in 2012 were Japan, the USA, China, Thailand
There are no highways in Bhutan and the few roads
that have been developed are only suitable for low
traffic. There is no railway line. The only
international airport is near the capital Thimbu.
The currency is the Bhutanese Ngultrum (= 100