||Bandar Seri Begawan
|Form of government
||absolute Malay Muslim monarchy
||UTC + 8
|Telephone area code
The Sultanate of Brunei (official name Brunei
Darussalam, abbreviation Brunei) is located in Southeast
Asia and, with the states of Malaysia and
Indonesia,shares in the island of Borneo, the third
largest island in the world. Brunei is located in
northern Borneo and borders the South China Sea. The
country's total area (5,765 km²) is made up of two
non-contiguous territories, separated by the Malaysian
area (Limbang valley) and surrounded by Malaysian area
in the east, south and west.
Brunei has three types of landscape: mountains, hills
and coastal plains. The eastern part of Brunei, the
Temburong district, is mountainous in the south, here
the country has a share in the Crocker Range. The
highest point is the Bukit Pagon at 1,850 m. The central
part of the Temburong district and most of the western
part of Brunei are hilly areas with basin landscapes,
which are surrounded by ridges and lie at an altitude
between 100 m and 300 m. The north is occupied by
coastal lowlands with swamps. In the Temburong district,
the coast is strongly structured, in the western part
there is a compensatory coast.
Numerous rivers flow in the Crocker Range and the
ridges that flow northwards and flow into the South
China Sea. The larger ones include Temburong, Pandaruan,
Tutong and Belait.
The capital, Bandar Seri Begawan, is in the western
part of Brunei.
Brunei has a tropical rainy climate with high
temperatures all year round and lots of rainfall. In the
capital, Bandar Seri Begawan, an average of 27 กใ C is
measured in January and 28 กใ C in July. In the coastal
region, the amount of precipitation is around 3 500 mm
annually, in the hills and in the mountains up to 7 000
Flora and fauna
Around three quarters of the country are covered with
tropical rainforest, which has numerous plant species.
In the area of the river courses and estuaries there
are swamp forests and mangroves on the coast.
Due to the extensive, partly undeveloped forest
areas, the wildlife of Brunei is as diverse as the
flora. Animal species that have become rare in numerous
other countries, such as the silver gibbon, the giant
squirrel and several bird species (including those from
the hornbill family), are still common here. There is
also a great variety of reptiles and insects.
A total of around 375,000 people live in the
Sultanate of Brunei. The most densely populated is the
coastal plain, where most of the larger cities are
located. The average population density is 65 residents
per square kilometer. The largest city is Bandar Seri
Begawan with around 50,000 residents (agglomeration),
other cities include Kuala Belait with 21,200
(agglomeration) and Seria with around 21,100 residents
Around two thirds of the population are Malays, and
around 15% are Chinese. More than 10% of the population
is made up of foreigners who come primarily from India,
Malaysia, Hong Kong and Indonesia. The official language
is Malay, Chinese, English and local dialects are also
spoken. Islam with a Sunni orientation is the state
religion, and around 67% of Brunei's residents profess
it. The second largest faith group are Buddhists with
around 13%. Christians and followers of Confucianism and
Daoism are religious minorities. Population growth was
around 2.5% in the mid-1990s and is now declining
slightly due to state restrictions on immigration
(around 1.9% in 2007).
The standard of living in Brunei is very high due to
the sale of oil, the social and health care are well
developed. The average life expectancy is 75 years.
There is no compulsory schooling, but attending classes
is free. According to COUNTRYAAH,
the literacy rate is around 94%.
Brunei is an absolute Malay Muslim monarchy. The
state gained independence from the British protectorate
in 1984. In the Sultanate of Brunei, Sultan Haji
Hassanal Bolkiah has ruled as absolute ruler since 1967.
He is head of state and head of government in one person
and at the same time the highest guardian of the state
religion of Islam. Members of the sultan's family hold
other political offices. In addition to an eleven-member
Council of Ministers, there are other bodies such as the
Council for Religious Affairs and the Heir to the
Throne. All have a purely advisory role. The Legislative
Council, with 21 members appointed by the Sultan, met in
September 2004 for the first time in 20 years to adopt a
constitutional amendment. This prescribes a council with
45 seats (15 elected and 30 members appointed by the
Brunei has been in a state of formal emergency since
1962. Parties are prohibited.
Brunei is divided into the four districts (daerah)
Belait, Brunei and Mara, Temburong and Tutuong. The
legal system is determined by the state religion and is
based on the British system.
The economy of the Sultanate of Brunei is based on
the sale of oil and natural gas. With an average per
capita income of around $ 46,000, Brunei is one of the
world's wealthiest countries. The sultan was once the
richest man in the world with an estimated private
fortune of $ 40 billion; meanwhile the fortune has been
reduced to half. In order to reduce the dependency of
the economy on oil, the government is trying to expand
luxury tourism and to develop natural gas reserves off
the coast of Brunei. Unemployment is growing at 3.7%.
The main employer in Brunei is the state itself, which
employs over 50% of the workforce. There is covert
unemployment due to overemployment in the public
Over 80% of food and consumer goods have to be
imported. Just under 3% of the country's area is used
for agriculture, especially for rice cultivation, fruit
and vegetables; water buffalos and poultry are raised.
Government and state subsidies are to be used to expand
agriculture and forestry.
The main oil and gas buyer is Japan, followed by
South Korea and Australia. In addition to food,
machinery and vehicles are imported. The main suppliers
are Singapore, China and South Korea.
The road network covers a total of around 3,000 km
and is largely paved. The most important ports are
Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait and Muara. There is an
The currency is the Brunei dollar (= 100 cents). It
is pegged 1: 1 to the Singapore dollar, both currencies
are currency in both countries.