|Form of government
|Telephone area code
The Kingdom of Denmark (Norwegian: Kongeriget
Danmark) is located in Northern Europe and is the
southernmost of the Scandinavian countries. With an area
of 43 098 km², the country is slightly larger than
Switzerland. It consists of the Jutland peninsula and
474 islands, of which around 80 were inhabited in 1998.
The largest islands are (in order of their size) Zealand
with the capital Copenhagen , Funen, Lolland, a little
out of the way in the western Baltic Sea Bornholm,
Falster, Alsen, Langeland and Møn.
A single mainland border connects Denmark with
another country - the German state of
Schleswig-Holstein. The rest of the country - with
around 7,000 km of coastline - is surrounded by water.
In the west, dunes, sandbars and lagoon protect against
wintry North Sea storms, in the northwest there is the
Skagerrak as a connection to Norway and Sweden. The
strait of the Kattegat connects the North Sea and the
Baltic Sea, and the Baltic Sea lies off the east coast
of Denmark. Four types of coast can be distinguished:
compensation coasts with dunes on the Wadden and Marsh
coast in the west, chalk-lime coasts on Møn, fjord coast
on the east coast of Jutland and, as a special feature,
gneiss and granite coasts on Bornholm.
Geomorphologically, Denmark is the continuation of
the North German Plain. The last ice age left Geest
Islands and leveled moraine. For example, East and West
Jutland are separated from each other by such a moraine
Denmark is a very flat country, the average altitude
is 30 m above sea level. The highest elevation in
Denmark is the 173 m high Yding Skovhoy, which is
located in eastern Central Jutland. The longest river
has a length of 158 km and is called Gudenå, the largest
lake is the Arresee on Zealand with an area of 42 km².
Typical of the Danish landscape are the so-called
lagoon, which are largely separated from the open sea by
a spit and mostly have fresh water supply. The largest
lagoon, Limfjorden, runs through Jutland over a length
of around 180 km.
Greenland (capital Nuuk) and the archipelago of the
Faroe Islands (capital Torshavn) belong to the Kingdom
of Denmark as external possessions with self-government.
Greenland (Green Land) is located near the North
American mainland between the North Atlantic and the
Arctic Ocean. Cape Farvel, the southern tip of
Greenland, is on the same latitude as Oslo, Cape Morris
Jesup in the far north of the island is only 740 km from
the North Pole, making it the world's northernmost land
With almost 2.2 million km², Greenland - not counting
the continent of Australia - is the largest island in
the world. The island's inland ice covers an area of
approximately 1.8 million km² and forms the second
largest ice sheet in the world, in some places up to
3,400 m thick. Glaciers flow into the sea, particularly
on the west side of the island. The country has an up to
150 km wide ice-free coastline with high edge mountains,
which rises to a height of 3 700 m (Gunnbjørns Fjeld).
The Faroe Islands (Sheep Islands) are also in the
Atlantic halfway between Denmark and Greenland, north of
Scotland near the Shetland Islands. 17 of the 25
mountainous and rugged rocky islands are inhabited. The
largest of these is Streymoy (Danish: Strømø) with the
Denmark has a moderately mild maritime climate. The
reason for this is the location between the seas and the
Gulf Stream. Warm and rainy summers alternate with mild
winters. The average temperatures in Copenhagen are 0 กใ
C in January and 18 กใ C in July. The annual rainfall in
the capital is about 570 mm. Rainfall is highest in West
Jutland with up to 750 mm, and lowest in the island area
with up to 450 mm.
The climate in Greenland is arctic-polar in the north
of the inland ice. Temperatures in January do not rise
above -30 กใ C, in summer they average 0 กใ C. In southern
Greenland, the climate is subarctic (average around -9 กใ
C in February, around 7 กใ C in July). In contrast, the
Faroe Islands have a mild and humid climate, which leads
to the frequent formation of fog.
Flora and fauna
Denmark belongs to the region of the Central European
deciduous forest, but it already borders the vegetation
zone of the boreal coniferous forest, a forest belt that
connects to the Arctic in the northern hemisphere. The
majority of the mainland is made up of arable land,
pastures and meadows that are used for agriculture.
Forests that once covered two thirds of the country's
area still make up about 12% today. The most common
trees are beeches, which are mainly found in East
Jutland and the islands, oak, birch and ash also occur.
On the North Sea coast, afforestation measures are used
to protect the wind. About another 5% take up dunes,
heath areas, raised bogs and lakes.
Apart from red deer, there are hardly any wild
animals in the few remaining natural forest areas. There
are a few red foxes, rabbits and squirrels, very rarely
pine martens. Many species have been deprived of their
habitats by draining large wetlands for agricultural
use. The bird world, on the other hand, is very diverse.
Two thirds of the Danish territory consists of water
areas. Around 1,500 different animal species live in the
North Sea, with its almost oceanic water and high salt
content, and significantly fewer in the Baltic Sea.
Jellyfish and water fleas are just as much a part of the
marine life as bottlenose dolphins, cod, cod, herring
and plaice. Cockles and sandworms, mussels, crabs and
starfish live on the sea floor.
In Greenland, fall winds often occur, especially on
the west coast. The resulting warmer air masses lead to
increased vegetation. Short-growing birch and alder, but
also juniper, rhododendron, herbs, mosses and lichens
determine the picture. The vegetation becomes sparser
towards the north.
Domestic animals are arctic rabbits, reindeer and
blue and white foxes. Musk ox and lemmings appear in the
north. The coastal waters are home to seals and numerous
species of fish. The coasts of the Faroe Islands are
highly structured. Due to the high humidity, they are
covered with heaths, bogs and meadows. Due to the
constant strong wind, there are only a few trees on the
island. But the bird species are numerous.
Ornithologists number around 300, many of them - such as
puffins and petrels - nest in the rocky cliffs of the
According to COUNTRYAAH, 5.53 million people live in Denmark, the
population density is about 128 people per km². The
country is culturally and ethnically very uniform:
Around 94% of the population are Danes, the majority of
them (around 81% in total) belong to the Evangelical
Lutheran Church. The majority of the approximately
200,000 foreigners come from Scandinavia or EU
countries. Over a third of the total population lives in
the region around the capital Copenhagen (with 1.79
million residents in the metropolitan area), the second
largest city of Aarhus is already considerably smaller
with 657,500 residents (agglomeration).
Greenland has a population of around 56,000, of whom
about three quarters are Eskimo or Eskimo ancestors. The
rest of the population consists mainly of Danes, with
this proportion declining. About 70% of Greenlanders
live on the west coast in the area around Disko Bay and
in the central region. The capital Nuuk has around
15,900 residents. Inuktitut (Greenlandic Eskimo) is
spoken in addition to the official language Danish.
Around 48,600 people live in the Faroe Islands. After
the population tripled in the course of the 19th century
to almost 50,000 in the course of the 19th century, it
has since declined again. The Faroese also have their
own language (Faroese), but Danish is taught in all
schools.In Denmark, the population grows by 0.4%
According to the constitution of 1953, Denmark is a
parliamentary monarchy with a king or queen as head of
state (Queen Margrethe II since 1972). The monarch
formally appoints a cabinet chaired by the Prime
Minister (Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt since
September 2011). This is the responsibility of the
unicameral parliament (folketing).
The folketing consists of 179 deputies who are
elected for four years. Among them are two from
Greenland and two from the Faroe Islands. The most
important parties are the Right Liberal Party (Venstre),
the Social Democrats (SD), the Right Nationalist Danish
People's Party (DF), the Socialist People's Party (SF),
the Red-Green Union List (E) and the Social Liberal
Denmark is divided into five regions with a total of
98 municipalities. Greenland has its own state
parliament (Landsting), which is legally independent
except for the following areas: foreign policy,
administration of Greenland's natural resources, police
and law. The highest representative of the Danish
imperial authorities in Greenland is the Imperial
Ombudsman. A similar system applies to the Faroe
Islands: on the one hand, the islands in the Atlantic
are part of the Danish Kingdom, on the other hand, the
islands manage themselves with the exception of defense
and foreign policy.
Denmark is one of the most highly developed
industrial countries in the world with a very high
standard of living and little social difference. As a
member of the EU and due to its proximity to Germany,
the country is economically strongly oriented to the
south. A traditional counterpoint to this is the close
economic cooperation with the Scandinavian neighboring
countries Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland, with
which there is also a passport union.
The temperate, humid climate favors extremely
effective agriculture. Almost three quarters of the
country's land is used as meadows, pastures and arable
land for agriculture - and mostly with the help of the
latest technology. The substantial surplus of (beef)
meat, milk and eggs as well as fish from the North Sea
is exported. Denmark has one of the most important
fishing fleets in Europe.
In addition to agricultural products, beer,
pharmaceuticals, furniture, ships and goods from the
metal industry are the most important export goods.
Thanks to its excellent transport structure, the country
is also an important hub between the EU and Scandinavia
on water, on the road and in the air. Germany is the
most important foreign trade partner for both imports
and exports, followed by Sweden.
With the exception of lime and oil, there are only a
few raw materials. The oil reserves cover their own
needs and supply surpluses. A low inflation rate and
unemployment rate, the high standard of training for
employees and a strong high-tech production sector will
continue to ensure economic stability for the country in
In Greenland, a large number of people continue to
work directly or indirectly in the fisheries sector.
Cod, halibut and seal fishing play a central role, and
there are sometimes factories for the industrial
processing of the caught fish. In addition, sheep
breeding and mining are economically profitable, since
1973 lead-zinc ores have been mined at Maarmorilik.
Kangelussuaq is an important airfield for the polar
route, the main port of the island is in the capital
In the Faroe Islands, declining fishing yields caused
major economic problems in the 1990s, but fishing for
cod and herring continues to be an important source of
income. Sheep farming also has lost importance. Oil
deposits are suspected to be near the islands. The
currency is the crown (= 100 ore).