|Republic of Ghana
|Form of government
|Telephone area code
Ghana (officially: Republic of Ghana) is located near
the equator in West Africa. It borders the Gulf of
Guinea with a 535 km long coast in the south, the
Republic of Ivory Coast in the west of the country ,
Burkina Faso in the north and Togo in the east . With an
area of 238,533 km², the country is about the size of
In Ghana is the largest reservoir in the world with
8,482 km², the voltaic lake dammed up by the Akosombo
dam. The Volta, which is dammed up at its lower reaches,
is also the main stream of the country, it arises from
the Black and White Volta as well as the tributaries
Afram and Oti and flows east of the capital Accra(1.04
or in the greater area 2.90 million residents) into the
Gulf of Guinea. Other large cities in the country are
Kumasi, Tamale and Tema.
After a coastal region up to 25 km wide, which is not
very structured and is characterized by lagoons in the
east, different plateaus follow. These are crossed by
numerous valleys and are bordered in the southeast
between Accra and the Volta by the Akwapim®Ļcken, east of
the lower Volta and the Oti by the Togo-Atakora
mountains. In the center of the country and in the north
is a hilly area called Ashanti, which is located on
different levels due to the tributaries of the Volta.
The highest mountain in the country is the Afadjoto at
885 m, which is located on the border with Togo east of
In the south of the country there is a tropical,
humid and hot climate with two rainy seasons from May to
June and October to November. In the north, on the other
hand, there is only one rainy season, which lasts from
July to September, the climate here is hot and dry. The
average temperatures in the port city of Accra are 28 °„
C in January and 25 °„ C in July. The annual amount of
precipitation in Accra is 725 mm. This climate is
accompanied by a very high humidity, which is up to
about 80%, especially on the coast. In the north,
however, the humidity is around 65% in the rainy season,
in the dry season it can drop to 35% during the day. The
climate of the northern parts of the country is
influenced by influences from the Sahara.Typical is the
dry and hot desert wind Harmattan, which blows mainly
from January to March.
Flora and fauna
Much of the country's natural flora has been
destroyed by land clearing measures for agriculture. In
the southwest, near the equator, there is still
evergreen tropical rainforest with trees up to 50 m high
(mahogany, cedar) and rain-green damp forest. Along the
sea coast, there is a beach and lagoon vegetation with
few mangroves and coastal grassland. The dry and hot
north, which takes up about two thirds of the country,
is covered by savannas, grasslands with isolated trees
that are becoming drier to the north.
The habitat for the animal world was also severely
limited. The sea is rich in fish, including barracudas,
tuna and sharks, while inland there are numerous
freshwater fish in the river areas and the reservoir.
The manatee also lives in the lagoons and rivers, a
manatee species that is over 3 m long. The wet areas on
the coast offer both native birds and migratory birds a
rich livelihood. In the forests in particular, 200
species of birds, from parrots to kingfishers, and over
500 species of butterflies are known. Colonies of
various species of monkeys can be found in nature
reserves in the Brong-Ahafo region in central Ghana;
there are also remaining stocks of the giant antelope
species Bongo. Reptiles are very numerous, including
cobras, pythons, vipers and snakes. There are crocodiles
on rivers all over the country. The dry, hot north
offers elephants and lions good living conditions in the
wild, although most of the specimens are now only found
in nature reserves.
Around 21.03 million people live in Ghana, around two
million live and work mostly in neighboring countries.
Over 99% of the population from Ghana are black Africans
who belong to over 50 different ethnic groups. The Akan
(Ashanti, Fanti) represent the majority of the African
ethnic groups with 44% of the population, Mossi and
Dagomba (16%) and Ewe (12%) are the next two largest
groups. Europeans make up a very small minority with a
population share of 0.2%.
English is the official language, and since 1962 nine
African languages have been approved as school
languages depending on the region and ethnic group (Akuapem-Twi,
Asante-Twi, Dagbani, Dangbe, Ewe, Fanti, Ga, Kasem and
Nizima). According to COUNTRYAAH, 63% of the country's residents are Christians,
about a quarter belong to traditional natural religions,
16% are Muslims.
As in many other African countries, Ghana's
population is affected by HIV / AIDS. In 2007, an
estimated 1.9% of adults were infected. The population
growth is 1.25%. The average life expectancy in Ghana is
56 years, the literacy rate approx. 75%.
According to the 1993 constitution, Ghana is a
presidential republic in the Commonwealth. The
president, who is directly elected every four years, is
also head of state and leader of the executive (John
Dramani Mahama, since July 2012). He convenes the
cabinet, which is responsible to the parliament.
The 230 members of parliament are directly elected
for four years.
The judicial system is based on the British legal
The country is divided into ten regions.
Ghana is one of the most economically developed
countries in tropical Africa. It has belonged to the
group of lower middle income countries since 2011. High
inflation remains problematic.
Agriculture, fishing and forestry are the basis for
daily living for about half of the population. Corn,
millet, cassava, yams, sugar cane, rice, peanuts and
vegetables are primarily grown for own use. Bananas,
coffee, cocoa and palm oil, on the other hand, are
important agricultural export goods and thus a source of
foreign currency for the country. They are mostly
exported via the port of Takoradi. Cattle breeding can
be found mainly in the north of the country. Despite
declining exports, forestry through the export of
mahogany and other hardwoods remains an important area
of work in the southwestern rainforest areas. WWF
estimates that well over half of the logging is
illegal.In addition, fishing by the sea and in Lake Vita
plays an important role for the internal market.
Ghana is rich in mineral resources. The country began
commercial exploitation of the Gulf of Guinea's oil
reserves in 2010. The deposits of gold, diamonds,
manganese and bauxite are good prerequisites for an
economically positive development. Bauxite is processed
into aluminum in the country's most important industrial
company in the port city of Tema. Due to the oil
refinery, Tema is an important industrial location and
the most important import port in the country. Other
branches of industry include the small but high-quality
glass industry and some cement plants. Ghana's main
trading partners are its neighboring countries; within
the EU especially Great Britain and France; Trade is
also carried out with China and the USA. The country has
to import primarily motor vehicles, machinery and food.
Tourism is increasingly playing a role in Ghana's
The country's international airport is in Kotoka near
Accra. The road network has so far been expanded to over
35,000 km. Around 11,000 km of this is paved, but of
different quality. Although there is a rail network,
only the route between Kumasi and Sekondi-Takoradi has
been used regularly since 2006.
The currency is the cedi (= 100 pesewas).