|Republica da Guin¨¦-Bissau
|Form of government
||democratic presidential republic
|Telephone area code
The Republic of Guinea-Bissau is located in West
Africa on the Atlantic coast and, with a size of 36 125
km², is about the size of the Netherlands. The country
borders Senegal in the north, Guinea in the east and
south and the Atlantic in the west . The state territory
includes the 60 islands off the coast of the Bissago
The coast is strongly divided by the mouth funnels of
numerous rivers that reach deep inland. In this area
there are extensive mudflats and marsh landscapes. The
slightly hilly coastal plain is around 30 to 50 m above
sea level, towards the east the country gradually rises
to a plateau landscape that rises in the foothills of
the Fouta-Djalon Mountains to a maximum of 300 m in the
southeast of the country.
The capital, Bissau, is on the Atlantic coast.
Guinea-Bissau is located in the marginal tropics, the
climate shows only little seasonal temperature
fluctuations. The temperatures are between 25 ¡ã C and 28
¡ã C all year round. During the rainy season, which lasts
from May to October / November, a large part of the
precipitation falls. In southern Guinea-Bissau fall up
to 3,000 mm, in the north it is around 1,200 mm a year.
Since the funnel mouths of the rivers reach far inland,
floods often occur in the coastal country during the
Flora and fauna
Mangroves and swamp forests predominate on the coast,
oil palms are common. Evergreen rainforests grow on the
coastal plain and on the offshore islands (in total,
around 38% of the country is forested). In the east of
Guinea-Bissau there is a moist savannah with light trees
Crocodiles, hippos and numerous water birds such as
pelicans, herons and flamingos live on the watercourses
and in the marshes in the coastal area. Pangolin, vervet
monkeys, semi-monkeys and gorse cats and numerous snake
species can be found in the rainforests. The population
of animals in the wet savannah in the east of the
country is severely decimated. Antelopes, elephants,
buffalos and leopards are found only sporadically.
A total of around 1.42 million people live in
Guinea-Bissau, almost a quarter of them in cities. By
far the largest city is the capital Bissau with around
355,000 residents in the metropolitan area, other cities
are for example Bafat¨¢ (18,000 residents) and Gab¨²
(9,500). According to COUNTRYAAH,
the population density is around 39 residents
per square kilometer.
Several culturally different ethnic groups live in
the country, a total of approx. 25. The largest
population group are the Balante with approx. 30%,
second largest group are the Fulbe (approx. 21%),
followed by the Malinke (14%), Mandyako (13%) and Pepel
(pap¨¦is, 7%). More than half of the residents of
Guinea-Bissau are followers of natural religions,
approx. 45% are Muslims, the rest are Christians. The
official language is Portuguese, a Creole language (a
mixture of Portuguese and African languages) and other
African languages are often used as a common language.
The insufficient supply of food to the population and
the poor health system are reflected in the life
expectancy of only 47 years and the high infant
mortality rate (over 10%). Since the birth rate averages
five children per woman, the population growth is still
a relatively high 3%. Almost 4% of the population are
infected with HIV / AIDS.
School attendance is compulsory for children between
the ages of seven and 13, but literacy is only 42.4%.
About 70% of the population live below the poverty line.
According to the 1999 constitution, Guinea-Bissau is
a democratic presidential republic. The head of state is
the President (Jos¨¦ M¨¢rio Vaz (since June 2014), who is
elected by the people for a term of five years (one-time
re-election). He appoints the Prime Minister (Domingos
Simões Pereira, since July 2014) in consultation with
the party leaders of the Parliament represented parties.
The legislature lies with the National Assembly,
whose 100 deputies are elected by the people for five
Guinea-Bissau is divided into eight regions and a
capital district, the regions in turn in 37 sectors.
Guinea-Bissau is one of the ten poorest countries in
the world and is highly dependent on foreign financial
and development aid. Per capita income is estimated at $
500. Due to the lack of state structures and the
widespread poverty that favors corruption, the country
is increasingly developing into a drug handling center
(especially cocaine) between South America and Europe as
well as the USA and Canada.
The most important area is agriculture, where two
thirds are employed and generate about 60% of GDP. Rice,
cassava, maize and sugar cane are mainly grown for our
own needs. Cashew nuts, peanuts and palm kernels are
exported. Food must be imported. Fine wood is exported
to a small extent, but the forest stands are mainly used
for the extraction of firewood. Fishing is important
both for the provision of food to the population and for
The natural resources in Guinea-Bissau (including
larger deposits of bauxite, zinc, copper, diamonds and
petroleum) were mined primarily by foreign companies.
Offshore oil deposits have been discovered off the
coast. They have not yet been exploited, but could
strengthen Guinea-Bissau's economy in the future.
The most important trading partners for exports
(cashew nuts, fish, shrimp, peanuts, palm kernels and
wood) are India, Thailand and the USA. Senegal is the
most important partner in the import of goods
(especially food, machinery, vehicles, fuels), followed
by Portugal, India and China.
The road network covers around 4,400 km, of which
around 450 km are paved. The numerous rivers are
important connections. There is an international airport
The currency is the CFA franc.