|R®¶publique de Guin®¶e
|Form of government
|Telephone area code
The Republic of Guinea is located in West Africa on
the Atlantic coast and, at 245,857 km², is about two
thirds the size of Germany. In the north, the country
borders on Senegal and Mali , in the east on the Ivory
Coast , in the south on Liberia , in the southwest on
Sierra Leone , in the west on the Atlantic and in the
northwest on Guinea-Bissau .
Guinea can be divided into four different landscape
areas. The approximately 300 km long coast, which is
strongly divided by bays and islands, and the coastal
plain beyond with fertile soils are part of Lower
Guinea. To the east of the coastal region is a table
mountain (Fouta Djalon), which rises in steep steps and
occupies two thirds of the country's territory and is
called Central Guinea. Here heights of up to 1,500 m are
reached. Numerous rivers (eg Bafing (a source river of
Senegal), Gambia, Tinkisso) originate in this
mountainous country, which have cut deep valleys.
Hilly Upper Guinea (400 to 500 m) stretches east of
the table mountain region, which is crossed by the upper
reaches of the Niger and its tributaries. In the extreme
south-east of the country lies Forest Guinea, which is
surmounted by numerous island mountains such as the
Nimbabergen (highest point in the country at 1,752 m).
The capital Conakry is located on a peninsula on the
In general, Guinea is in the area of influence of
the alternatingly humid tropics, whereby the four
regions of Lower, Middle, Upper and Forest Guinea differ
greatly from one another in terms of climate. Lower
Guinea has constant temperatures all year round (27 to
35 °„ C) and has a rainy season from April to November
(up to 4,000 mm). Hurricane-like storms occur in July
and August, during which a large part of the
Inland (Central Guinea), the annual rainfall is
between 1,300 and 1,500 mm. The temperature fluctuations
are greater than in the coastal area and can drop below
10 °„ C in the winter half-year, and the air humidity
here is also significantly lower.
In the savannah region of Upper Guinea, the hot
desert wind Harmattan has very low humidity from October
to February. The temperatures fluctuate between 18 °„ C
and 40 °„ C. The amount of precipitation varies widely.
In the extreme south-east of Guinea, the temperature
fluctuations are lower again (24 to 28 °„ C). The rainy
season lasts eight to ten months, the annual rainfall is
Flora and fauna
Large stocks of mangroves can be found in the coastal
area. The plateaus of Central Guinea's plateau are
largely cleared: forests are only sporadic (eg with teak
and baobab trees), grasslands predominate. Dry savannah
predominates in the northeast of the country. The
largest forest areas can be found in the extreme
southeast of the country (Forest Guinea), especially on
the plateaus of the Nimba Mountains. Here too, large
parts of the rainforest have been cleared, but there is
still a large variety of different plant species.
Larger species of mammals such as elephants,
buffaloes, lions and leopards have become rare in Guinea
due to the restriction of their habitat. Hyenas, baboons
and reptiles are common and the coastal region is
particularly rich in species.
According to COUNTRYAAH, 9.18 million people live in the Republic of
Guinea, two thirds of them in rural areas. By far the
largest city in the country is the capital Conakry,
about 1.87 million people live here. The population
density varies widely from region to region, with the
coastal region being the most populated (37 residents
per square kilometer across the country).
More than 20 ethnic groups live in Guinea. The
largest population group are the Fulbe with a good 40%,
who mainly inhabit the Fouta-Djalon Mountains and the
capital Conakry. The second largest group are the
Malinke (26%, Upper Guinea), Susu (11%, coastal region),
Kissi (6%) and Kpelle (5%, both predominantly forest
Guinea). It is also estimated that over half a million
refugees from neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone live
in Guinea. Some of the people who fled Guinea from the
dictator S®¶kou Tour®¶ have also returned.
The official language in Guinea is French; the
languages of the Fulbe, Malinke and Susu continue to
be spoken. More than 80% of the population are followers
of the Sunni faith in Islam. Natural religions are
sometimes practiced in parallel. Christians are a
minority at around 8%.
The life expectancy for the residents of Guinea is
almost 50 years. The average age of the population is
only 17.7 years. The population grows by 2.0% annually.
At a good third (women: only 22%), the literacy rate is
According to the 2010 constitution, Guinea is a
presidential republic. The head of state is the
President (Alpha Cond®¶ since December 2010), who is
elected by the people for a term of five years (one-time
re-election possible). The president appoints the head
of government (Mohamed Saïd Fofana since December 2010)
and the members of the cabinet.
The legislature lies with the National Assembly,
whose 114 members are elected by the people for a term
of five years.
The country is divided into eight regions.
Guinea is one of the poorer countries in Africa,
although it has extensive resources - mineral resources,
hydropower, fertile soils. Over two thirds of the
population live on less than two US dollars a day. After
the death of the dictator Tour®¶ in 1984, the former
socialist-oriented economy was restructured into a
market economy. However, the increased fighting along
the Sierra Leone and Liberia borders since the turn of
the millennium led to refugee movements and a decline in
economic growth; corruption was rampant, inflation rose.
Agriculture generates just under a quarter of gross
domestic product (GDP), but employs over four fifths of
the workforce. Rice, millet, corn, sweet potatoes and
manioc are mainly grown to meet the population's own
needs. Coffee, pineapple, bananas and oil palms (for the
production of palm fat) are cultivated for export.
Forestry and fishing only play a subordinate role for
Guinea is one of the largest bauxite exporters in the
world. Other mineral resources include iron ore, nickel,
uranium, gold and diamonds. Mining is the most important
industry for exports, raw materials make up over three
quarters of the export volume. The industry is only
moderately developed and focuses on the processing of
food and the processing of mineral resources.
The main customers for Guinean goods (bauxite,
aluminum, clay, gold, diamonds, coffee and fish) are
France, Ireland, Spain and the USA. The main imports are
food, petroleum products, machinery, metals, textiles,
capital and consumer goods, the most important suppliers
are the EU countries, China, the USA and Côte d'Ivoire
Around 2,000 km of paved road are available (a total
of 20,000 km). There is an international airport in
The currency is the Guinea Franc (= 100 Cauris).