Republic of Guyana
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The Cooperative Republic of Guyana is located in
northeastern South America. The country has three
neighboring countries: Venezuela in the west, Brazil in
the southwest and south, and Suriname in the east.
Guyana borders the Atlantic to the north. With a land
area of 214,969 km², the country is about two thirds
the size of Germany.
The geographic surface structure can be divided into
two regions: on the one hand in the highlands, which run
parallel to the borders with Brazil and Venezuela almost
to the coast and occupy more than two thirds of the
country, on the other hand in a 15 to 70 km wide coastal
lowland, which stretches along the 435 km long Atlantic
coast. In the south and southwest, the north-east slope
of the highlands is up to 1,300 m high, and in the
immediate vicinity of the border, the highest mountain
in Guyanas rises (2,810 m). Further north the country
merges into the hilly country. Parts of the coastal
areas have been impounded with dams by the former Dutch
colonial masters and are therefore below sea level.
The longest river in Guiana is the Essequibo, which
rises on the Brazilian border and flows into the
Atlantic after about 1,000 km near the capital,
Georgetown. Other water-rich rivers are the Corantijn
(border river to Suriname) and from east to west Berbice,
Dermerara, Mazaruni and Cuyuni, all of which flow into
Guyana has a tropical climate, which is characterized
by a main rainy season from April to August and a short
rainy season in December and January.
The annual rainfall increases from south to north. In
the south it averages around 1,500 mm a year, and to the
north it rises to values of 3,000 mm a year. The
capital Georgetown on the Atlantic has a value of 2,050
The average annual temperatures in Guyana change only
insignificantly in the individual months. They are
between 26 ˇăC and 27 ˇăC, with a very high humidity all
Flora and fauna
About 70% of the country's area is covered by
tropical rainforest. The lowland rainforest is divided
into three to five tree floors. The highest is formed by
tropical trees up to 60 m high, the lowest by trees
around 15 m high. The tropical mountain rainforest
begins at an altitude of 1,000 m above sea level and is
somewhat sparse. In addition to the large-scale
rainforests, savannahs are particularly found in the
coastal lowlands and in the southwest. Mangrove forests
can be found on the coasts. Various other saltwater
grasses also grow in standing brackish water and protect
the coastlines through their existence.
Just as in the rainforests, where not nearly all
plant species have been identified, the same applies to
the animal world that lives in this fertile habitat. The
bird life with many different hummingbirds and the
countless insects is particularly rich in species. For
example, the tapir, which is the largest mammal in the
country, lives more hidden. The same applies to the
Jaguar and the Ocelot. Monkeys and deer appear in large
numbers. The anteater, sloths and armadillos as well as
the bush pig are typical for the animal world of the
savannah landscapes. The biggest scavenger is the
vulture. In the numerous rivers there are caimans and
snakes, such as the giant anaconda and the water boa,
which live in the area of the rivers. Iguanas from the
lizard family also live in Guyana. The largest
freshwater fish is the piraucu, that can reach a length
of up to four meters. Sharks and numerous other fish
live in the coastal waters.
The approximately 769,000 residents of the country
concentrate mainly on the coastal strip on the Atlantic
and here in turn on the cities. Of these, the capital
Georgetown with 139,000 residents is the country's
As in the neighboring country of Suriname, Guyana has
a high proportion of Asians and Asian people. About half
of the population are of Indian descent, 30% are black,
12% mixed and 4% Indian. Although they form the nominal
majority of the population, the Indians play a
subordinate role in national politics. For example, they
are systematically discriminated against when it comes
to job creation in the state.
The following picture emerges for religious
affiliations: according to COUNTRYAAH, 50% of the population belong to
Christian religions, with Protestantism predominating, a
third are Hindus and 9% Muslims.
The official language is English, but depending on
the prevailing ethnic group, almost a dozen different
tribal dialects as well as Hindi and - especially in the
country - Patois are spoken.
The population growth of the small South American
state is due to the strong emigration almost to zero,
life expectancy is 65.5 years. Almost 99% of the
population can read and write.
According to the 1980 constitution, Guyana is a
presidential republic with a multi-party system. A
president elected for five years (Donald Ramotar, since
December 2011) heads the state as head of state and
supreme holder of executive power. He is elected by the
leading party and appoints the ministers. The head of
government has been Samuel Hinds since 1997.
The legislature consists of only one chamber, the
National Assembly, which has 65 members. 40 are elected
every five years by universal suffrage, 25 by the
provinces. The most important parties in the country are
the Progressive People's Party (PPP) and the Socialist
National People's Congress (PNC).
Guyana is divided into ten regions and its legal
system is based on English and Dutch criminal law.
Despite the rich natural resources that the country
has, Guyana is one of the most underdeveloped countries
in the world. Large parts of the population live below
the poverty line. Critical factors are the weather
dependency of the agricultural sector (drought risk),
the political unrest, the scarcely developed
infrastructure and the lack of skilled workers for the
industrial sector. However, the economy is developing
positively: since 2010 the gross domestic product (GDP)
per capita has increased from almost 3000 to almost 4000
US dollars / year.
The most important agricultural export good is sugar.
But rice, coconut palms and tropical fruits are also
grown. The Guyanese timber industry is comparatively
underdeveloped, fishing is becoming more important.
In the highly fragmented hilly country in the north
inland there are bauxite deposits that are exploited and
have a significant share in the total industrial export
value of the country. Another important export good is
gold. Machines, vehicles, fuels, food and consumer goods
are mainly imported from the USA, Trinidad and Tobago,
Great Britain and Cuba.
The country's main seaports are Georgetown and New
Amsterdam, and the international airport is near
The currency is the Guyana dollar.