|Rep¨˛blica de Honduras
|Form of government
|Telephone area code
The Central American Republic of Honduras (officially
Spanish: Rep¨˛blica de Honduras) has an area of 112,188
km² and borders the Caribbean Sea in the north and the
Pacific Ocean in the southwest. Neighboring countries
are in southeast Nicaragua, southwest Salvador and
western Guatemala. In addition, the archipelago "Islas
de la Bah¨Şa", which lies in the Caribbean Sea, belongs
to the state territory. The largest island is Roat¨˘n
with the city of the same name.
The landscape of Honduras is mostly mountainous. It
has mountain ranges between 2,000 and 2,500 m high.
These run from a central highland in the southwest to
the Caribbean Sea and are separated by numerous pools.
An exception are the Mosquitia, a broad coastal plain in
the northeast of the country, and a narrow lowland strip
on the Gulf of Fonseca. Numerous rivers flow through the
country. The most water-rich of these are the Rio Ul¨˛a
in the northwest, the Rio Aqu¨˘n in the north, the Rio
Patuca in the northeast and the Rio Coca on the border
with Nicaragua. All four rivers flow into the Caribbean
Sea. The largest river that flows into the Pacific Gulf
of Fonseca is the Rio Choluteca. The highest mountain in
the country is Cerro Las Minas at 2,865 m. It is located
in the west in the Montana de Celaque.
Honduras has a tropical climate. The large-scale
weather is influenced all year round by the northeast
Annual precipitation is lowest in the south, where it
averages around 1,000 mm. To the north, the average
values increase to over 2,500 mm a year. In the
lowlands there are hot, humid temperatures in the
The average temperature in the capital Tegucigalpa is
19 ˇăC in January and 24 ˇăC in July.
A special feature of the region are violent and
frequently occurring hurricanes, tropical cyclones that
arise over warm sea areas due to disturbances in the
trade winds. They can have a diameter of several hundred
kilometers and reach wind speeds of over 200 kilometers
Flora and fauna
The country's vegetation in the lower regions
consists of tropical lowland rainforest, which merges
with mountain and cloud forest with increasing altitude.
Especially in the lower, humid areas of the mountains in
the north there is a wide belt of evergreen forests,
which produces particularly large trees, including
mahogany. In the regions with less rain, particularly in
the central highlands, dry forest, including oak, grows.
There are also pastures and grasslands. The coastal
plain of the Mosquitia is home to pines and swamp palms,
and sandy bays stretch along the coastline. In the
northern parts of the country, the marshy coasts are
covered with mangroves or palm trees.
Large areas of the former rainforests in the lowlands
have been cleared over the years and turned into
cultivated land; As a result, the natural fauna that
once lived here has withdrawn to the natural regions
where there is still a great diversity of species.
Insects, reptiles and birds are the most diverse and
largest populations. A multitude of butterflies,
spiders, wasps, bees and beetles as well as moths, flies
and mosquitoes inhabit the rainforest regions.
Crocodiles, snakes and lizards - such as the iguana -
are also at home here. Larger mammals such as deer,
tapirs, cougars, jaguars and ocelots mainly live in the
forested areas. There are numerous fish species in the
lagoons, but also molluscs. There are many species of
waterfowl on the coast.
According to COUNTRYAAH, 90% of the 6.97 million Hondurans are crossbreeds.
Mulattoes (Negride and European ancestors) and Zambos
(Negride and Indian ancestors) predominate in the
lowlands, and mestizo (Indian and European ancestors) in
the mountainous regions. Indians make up 7% of the
population, the majority of them are Mayan descendants.
Blacks and whites each have a population share of 2%.
More than half of the people live in cities. The
largest city in the country is the capital Tegucigalpa
with around 770 100 residents, the next largest city is
San Pedro Sula near the border with Guatemala with
around 439 000 residents. The port city of La Ceiba with
114,600 residents plays an important role as a
transshipment point for goods.
95% of Hondurans are committed to Christianity,
whereby the Christian faith is strongly connected with
ancient Indian traditions and rites. The proportion of
Protestants is increasing (currently about a tenth of
the population). The national language is Spanish.
The population, whose average life expectancy is 65
years, grows by 2% annually. A good three quarters of
the population of Honduras can read and write.
Honduras is a presidential democracy, the
constitution dates from 1982. The president (Juan
Orlando Hern¨˘ndez, since January 2014), who can only be
elected for a legislative term, serves four years. He
appoints the ministers.
The legislature lies with the National Congress,
which has 128 MPs who are also elected for four years.
The number of seats per party is calculated from the
percentage of votes counted for their presidential
The Republic is divided into 18 departments and 298
Honduras is one of the poorer countries in Latin
America. Income is distributed extremely unevenly; 65%
of the population live below the poverty line.
Officially, only 3.1% of Hondurans are unemployed, but
there is a large number of unreported cases and
underemployment (an estimated 35%).
The country generally offers good soils and good
climatic conditions for growing food. Honduras was once
the largest banana exporter in the world; Banana
cultivation still plays a central role in agriculture in
the former Spanish colony. In addition, the cultivation
of coffee, pineapple and the extraction of palm oil have
become more important. Almost 40% of the workforce is
employed in agriculture and generates 13% of the gross
domestic product (GDP).
Rich mineral resources are suspected on Honduran
territory. Gold, silver, zinc, antimony, copper and iron
have been proven, but are only moderately mined. There
are only a few industrial companies in the country that
deal primarily with the further processing of
agricultural production, textile production and wood
processing. Much of the production flows into the
Exports - coffee, bananas, crustaceans, gold, palm
oil, fruit and electrical engineering - are almost
two-thirds bought by the United States. This is due to
the fact that the majority of both the plantations and
the mines are still owned by the United States. The
import (crude oil, chemical products, automotive parts,
machinery, electronics, iron and steel) also comes
mainly from the USA.
Not all parts of the country are well connected to
traffic. Of the 13,600 kilometers of road, only 2,800
are paved. International airports are located in
Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula and La Ceiba. The main ports
are in Puerto Cort¨¦s on the Caribbean coast and in San
Lorenzo on the Pacific.
The currency is the Lempira (= 100 Centavos).