|Form of government
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Kyrgyzstan (officially Kyrgyzstan Respublikasy,
German Kyrgyzstan or Kyrgyzstan) is located in Central
Asia. The former Soviet Republic has an area of
199,900 km² and borders in the north on Kazakhstan, in
the west on Uzbekistan, in the southwest on Tajikistan
and in the southeast on China.
Kyrgyzstan is a high mountain country. Around 50% of
its surface is over 1,000 m, a third over 3,000 m above
sea level. The highest mountain in the country is the
Pik Pobedy with 7 439 m. It rises in the Tienschan
Mountains in the northeast, which in addition to this
mountain also has the 6,995 m high Chan-Tengri. In the
southwest of the country are the Alai and Transalai
mountains, which also have mountains over 7,000 m high.
Valleys and basins stretch between the mighty mountain
ranges. The most important valleys are the Talas, the
Alai and the Tschutal, the most important basins are the
Issykkul and the Fergana basin. The largest lake in the
country is Issykkul, which is located in the north-east,
which in Kyrgyz means "hot lake". The 6 236 km²
drainless water is fed by hot springs and is therefore
ice-free, even though it is at an altitude of 1.608 m.
The country's largest river is the Naryn, which is the
right source of the Syrdarja (in ancient times Iaxartes).
After 3,019 km it flows as a trickle in the Aral Sea.
Several reservoirs, the largest of which is the Toktogul
with a 214 m high dam, are used to generate energy and
to irrigate the Fergana basin.
Kyrgyzstan has a dry continental climate with large
temperature differences between day and night and
between summer and winter. The decisive climatic factor
is the respective altitude of the region. The average
temperatures in Bishkek, the country's capital, are
between 750 and 900 m above sea level. NN lies at the
foot of the Tien-schan, -13 กใ C in January and 21 กใ C in
July. The annual rainfall amounts to around 400 mm, on
the north and west edges of the mountains fall up to 1
Flora and fauna
The vegetation in the country depends on the
altitude. Up to a height of around 1,500 m there are
bush and grass steppes, deserts and semi-deserts. This
is followed by dry mountain steppes at altitudes of up
to 4,000 m, which merge into subalpine and alpine
meadows. Forest groves made of spruce and juniper
species stand within these meadow regions. Walnut
forests can also be found in the southern part of the
country. These deciduous trees have large, feathery
leaves and are important suppliers of wood. In addition,
cooking oil can be made from the seeds. The altitudes
above 4,000 m are taken up partly by firn regions and
partly by glacier regions.
The wildlife of Kyrgyzstan has been adapted to the
different altitudes. The forested regions are inhabited
by brown bears, wild boars, gray wolves, stoats and
foxes. Wild mountain sheep can be found in the forested
valleys in the steppe regions, but goats, deer and snow
leopards are also at home here. The deserts and
semi-deserts are inhabited by ground squirrels, hares
and hedgehog species.
Up to a fifth of the rural population up to the 20s
of the 20th century already lives in the cities,
especially in the capital Bishkek, which is the largest
city in the country with 750 500 residents. The
country's second largest city is Osh in the south of the
republic. Osh was an important trading post on the Silk
Road, which had connected China to the Middle and Black
Seas since the 2nd century, and today has around 210,000
A total of around 5.15 million citizens of Kyrgyzstan
are 65% Kyrgyz, 14% are Uzbeks and only 12.5%
Russians. The majority of the Russian population, who
had settled in Kyrgyzstan at the time of the Soviet
Union, emigrated again. Smaller minorities are the
Tatars and the Ukrainians as well as Kazakhs, Dungans,
Tajiks and Uyghurs. Up to the 1990s, 3% of the
population were of German origin. German Mennonites
settled in the country as early as the 19th century,
during the Second World War the forced settlement of
ethnic Germans from other Central Asian countries, such
as the Volga region, followed, which continued into the
1950s and 1960s. Since the 1990s, about 100,000 ethnic
Germans have left the country, A small group of around
20,000 people remained, mainly in the Bishkek, Tokmok,
Sokuluk and Mailii-Suu regions.
According to COUNTRYAAH,
the vast majority of the population are mostly Sunni
Muslims (75%), 20% belong to the Russian Orthodox
Church. The official language is Kyrgyz, which belongs
to the group of Turkic languages. The common language of
communication is Russian. There is also an existence
guarantee for the languages of the numerous national
The population growth is just under 1%, the average
life expectancy is 68 years. Since the government is
very concerned about education, the literacy of the
population is very high (97%) despite the poor economic
According to the 2010 constitution, Kyrgyzstan is a
The political system is a mixture of a parliamentary
and a presidential system. The directly elected
president (Almazbek Atambayev, since December 2011) has
a number of important powers, for example with regard to
the appointment and dismissal of senior judges and
attorney general. He is also commander in chief of the
armed forces and chairman of the Security Council. The
president has a six-year term (one-time re-election).
However, Prime Minister (Dschantörö Satybaldijew, since
September 2012) and Parliament also have a strong
The legislature lies with the unicameral parliament,
the Supreme Council (Dschogorku Kenesch). It consists of
120 deputies who are elected for five years.
The Supreme Court is the highest authority in civil
law, in criminal, administrative and commercial law.
The administration is divided into seven areas
(oblasts) and the capital district.
The economically poor country was able to reduce
inflation and stabilize the economy after setbacks in
recent years, although up to 30% of the state budget was
met by Moscow before the collapse of the Soviet Union
and 90% of trade with COMECON countries took place. The
most important growth drivers are trade and services.
Nevertheless, almost 40% of the population live below
the poverty line, more in the south than in the north.
The service sector contributes almost half to gross
domestic product (GDP). Agriculture generates a fifth.
Goats, yak and fattening cattle are kept on the 7% of
the country's land where agriculture is possible.
Silkworm farming traditionally plays an important role.
Fruit and wine, poppies and vegetables, potatoes, sugar
beets, cotton, cereals and tobacco are grown. Cotton,
wool, meat and tobacco are the main products of
The main exports of industry consist of gold, uranium
and electricity, which is generated in the country's
numerous river power plants. In addition, smaller
amounts of mercury, antimony and gold ores and marble
are mined in the country, which is poor in raw
materials. The most important import goods are oil and
natural gas, machines, chemical products and industrial
The main customers are Switzerland, Kazakhstan,
Russia and Uzbekistan; most of the imports (mainly oil
and gas, machinery and food) come from Russia, China and
There are international airports in Bishkek and Osh,
and shipping on the Issykkul River.
Currency is the Som (= 100 Tiin).