|Republic of Malawi,
Dziko la Malaŵi
|Form of government
|Telephone area code
The Republic of Malawi is a landlocked country in
Southeast Africa. With a size of 118,480 km² (a quarter
of which is water), the national area corresponds to
about a third of the area of Germany. Malawi borders
Tanzania in the north and northeast , Mozambique in the
east, south and southwest and Zambia in the west . The
north-south extension is 850 km with a maximum width of
160 km. Lake Malawi (also Njassa) takes up about a fifth
of the country's surface (Malawi approximately 24,000
km²) and forms the border with Tanzania in the north,
and neighboring Mozambique also has a share in the lake
in the east.
Malawi lies almost entirely in the Nyassa trench,
which runs through the country from north to south and
represents the southern part of the East African trench
system. Lake Malawi is embedded in the ditch and is the
third largest lake in Africa with a total area of Almost
30,000 km². The Shire River is the main drain in the
south and flows into the Zambezi in Mozambique. To the
west and east of the Njassa Trench are plateaus at an
average height of 900 to 1,200 m, which are overlooked
by individual mountain ranges. In the north the Nyika
plateau reaches heights of up to approx. 2,600m, to the
south of Lake Malawi lies the Shirehochland (up to
2,700m). The highest peak in the country (Sapitwa) is
around 3,000 m south of Lake Chilwa in the Mulanje
The capital, Lilongwe, is located in western Malawi
at an altitude of 1,067 m.
The climate in Malawi is tropical and shows regional
differences due to the north-south expansion and the
different altitudes. In the north, the average rainfall
is around 1500 mm annually, the rains extend over eight
to nine months. In southern Malawi, the rainy season is
shorter (five to six months) and the amount of
precipitation is lower (1,000 mm). The temperatures vary
only slightly throughout the year and depend on the
altitude. In the highlands the average values are
between 18 and 22 กใ C, in the ditch area around 25 กใ C.
The rainy months are at the same time the warmest,
during which the humidity can reach up to 100% in the
Flora and fauna
Much of Malawi's vegetation consists of light dry
forest. In the north, grassy savannahs with trees (eg
candelabrum euphorbias, acacias) predominate, in the
south monkey bread trees and Deleb palms grow. Conifers
also grow in the highlands. There are only closed forest
areas in inaccessible parts of the mountains.
Malawi is home to many African species, such as
elephants, rhinos, giraffes, zebras, several monkeys and
antelopes, and big cats such as cheetahs and leopards. A
large part of the animal population, however, only
occurs in specially created protected areas (in total
around 11% of the country's area is under nature
protection). The largest reserves are Nyuka and Kasungu
National Parks. Lake Malawi National Park at the
southern end of Lake Malawi has been declared a World
According to COUNTRYAAH, 13.6 million people live in Malawi, with an
average of 115 residents per square kilometer, the
country is densely populated in an African comparison.
Only about 15% of the people live in cities, by far the
largest are the capital Lilongwe with around 750,000
residents and Blantyre in the south of the country with
The largest population group are the Marawi (Chichewa
and Nyaja) with 53% of the total population, followed by
Lomwe (16%), Yao (13%), Ngoni (9%) and others (9%). The
official language is English and the Bantu language
Chichewa, other Bantu languages are used.
Malawi is one of the poorest countries in the world
in terms of per capita income of the population ($ 180).
Social and health services are completely inadequate,
especially in rural areas; An estimated 30 to 55% of the
population are infected with the immunodeficiency
disease AIDS, the child mortality rate is a high 10%.
Nevertheless, the population grows by around 2% every
year. The average life expectancy has dropped to 32.5
years, and almost half of the Malawians are younger than
15 years. 63% of Malawi's population can read and write.
According to the 1995 constitution, Malawi is a
presidential republic with a multi-party system. The
head of state is the President (Peter Mutharika, since
May 2014), who is elected by the people for a term of
five years. The president is also head of the government
cabinet and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
The parliament consists of one chamber, the National
Assembly with a total of 193 seats. The people are
elected by the people for a term of five years.
Malawi is divided into three regions and 28
districts. The case law is based on British law and
traditional tribal law.
Malawi is one of the poorest and most underdeveloped
countries in the world and is highly dependent on
foreign aid. Over half of the population lives below the
The central economic sector is the agricultural
sector; A good third of the country's area is suitable
for agricultural use, and around 82% of the population
is employed here. Maize, cassava, millet and legumes are
mainly grown to cover our own needs. Tobacco, tea, sugar
cane, cotton and coffee are cultivated for export on
large plantations. Most of these larger companies are in
foreign hands or their owners belong to the country's
leading elite. Despite the rich fish stocks in the
waters of Malawi, fishing is practiced almost
exclusively for self-sufficiency.
The industry is only moderately developed and focuses
on the processing of agricultural products; it generates
around 20% of the gross domestic product (GDP). The
country's energy requirements are met almost exclusively
by hydropower plants (especially on the Shire River).
Malawi is poor in mineral resources, limestone and clay
are mined for domestic cement production.
The main trading partners for exports are South
Africa, Great Britain, Germany and the USA. When it
comes to the import of goods (food, machinery, vehicles,
finished goods), it is South Africa, India and Tanzania.
Paved roads (around 2,800 km) are found almost
exclusively between the cities of the country, and a
total of around 15,000 km of roads are available. The
approximately 800 km long railway line connects the
country to the ports of Beira and Nacala in Mozambique.
There are international airports in Lilongwe and
The currency is the Malawi kwacha (= 100 tambala).