|Principaut®¶ de Monaco
|Form of government
||Constitutional inheritance monarchy
|Telephone area code
With an area of 1.95 km², the Principality of
Monaco (officially: Principaut®¶ de Monaco) on the French
Mediterranean coast is the second smallest country in
Europe after the Vatican. The country borders France in
the west, north and east . Most of the country's area is
formed by a narrow coastal strip that rises steeply to
the north-western hinterland.
The principality consists of four districts:
Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Fontvielle and Monte Carlo.
Monaco-Ville is located on one of the many steep rocky
outcrops that are foothills of the French Maritime Alps
(Alpes Maritimes). The old town, the princely castle and
the oceanographic museum are located at a height of over
60 m. The port of the principality lies north of the old
town in a sheltered bay in the La Condamine district.
North of it lies Monte Carlo with the well-known casino
and the congress center. The district of Fontvielle is
located on a peninsula that was created in the 1960s due
The climate is Mediterranean with mild winters and
warm to hot summers. Average temperatures are around 10
°„ C in January and 24 °„ C in July. The Maritime Alps in
the hinterland protect the state from the Mistral, a
downwind typical of this Mediterranean region, coming
from the north. The average rainfall is 750 mm.
Flora and fauna
There is virtually no original vegetation in the
city-state of Monaco. Plants can only be found in
landscaped gardens and parks. In the Jardin Exotique
(Botanical Garden) you will find Mediterranean plants
such as pine, pine, cedar, various palm trees, olive
trees, cork oaks and laurel plants, an extraordinary
collection of cacti and a variety of flowers such as
hibiscus and passion flowers.
Except in the waters off the coast, there are only
pets and adapted animals in Monaco. In the Oceanographic
Institute rare marine animals such as deep sea fish are
Monaco has around 32,400 residents and thus an
extremely high population density with a national area
of 1.95 km². Only around 19% of citizens are
monegasques with the sought-after citizenship. According to COUNTRYAAH,
largest population group are French with 32%, while
Italians make up around 20%. The rest of the population
is made up of people of different origins. In the past
three decades, the population has increased by over 50%,
since Monaco is one of the so-called "tax havens".
The official language in the city-state is French;
English and Italian are common colloquial languages. The
Monegasque dialect also used consists of Italian and
Provencal elements. Around 90% of the population belong
to the Roman Catholic Church.
The population is currently growing by an estimated
0.4% per year, which is mainly due to immigration from
abroad. At almost 80 years, life expectancy is in the
According to the 1962 constitution, the Principality
of Monaco is a constitutional hereditary monarchy with
limited sovereignty. There is an obligation to
"coordinate" with France on important foreign policy
issues. The prince as head of state (since 2005 Prince
Albert II) appoints the Minister of State (since 2010
Michel Roger) as head of the government. The appointment
of the Minister of State requires the approval of
France. A crown council, of which a total of seven
members, four are appointed by the prince and three are
elected by the National Council for three years, advises
the head of state on domestic issues.
The legislature lies with the prince and the National
Council. Its 24 members are elected every five years.
Every Monegasse receives the right to vote on his 18th
There are no actual administrative units in Monaco;
the city has four quarters: Fontvieille, La Condamine,
Monte Carlo and Monaco-Ville.
Although there are no separate economic statistics
for the small state, whose economy is closely interwoven
with that of France (Customs Union 1865, Monetary Union
1925), Monaco is certainly one of the richest countries
in the world. At the beginning of the economic upswing
was gambling, which in turn increased tourism. Today
financial services are in the foreground. Since 1869,
private individuals have no longer had to pay direct
taxes (exemption for French citizens through a 1963
agreement), which makes the state (and the stable
political situation) one of the "tax havens" for foreign
investors. Economic growth in 2012 was 6.6%.
Agriculture practically does not exist in the
city-state. Semi-finished goods and capital goods are
mainly produced and exported, industrial and consumer
goods, machines, vehicles, food and energy are imported.
Tourism is an important industry, with over five
million foreign visitors coming to the country every
year. Attractions include the convention center, the
casino, the Formula I races and the Oceanographic
Museum. Since Monaco has no airport, there is a
helicopter connection to the airport in Nice.
Currency is the euro due to the monetary union with