|Rep®≤blica de Moçambique
|Form of government
|Telephone area code
Mozambique (officially: Rep®≤blica de Moçambique) is
located in southeast Africa. The east of the republic
borders the Indian Ocean. In the north,Tanzania , in the
north-west Zambia and Malawi , to the west of Zimbabwe ,
in the southwest of the Republic of South Africa and
southern Swaziland. With an area of 801 551 km², the
country is more than twice the size of Germany.
The national nature can be divided into two large
landscapes: A coastal strip between 200 and 400 km wide
extends as a lowland along the 2,795 km long coastline
on the Indian Ocean. Both steep and flat coasts
characterize the bank area north of the Zambezi, to the
south there are compensation coasts with lagoons, dunes
and bays. In the north and west, the lowlands rise to
highlands, which in turn have island mountains. The
highest of these, Monte Binga, is on the border with
Zimbabwe. At 2,436 m, it is the highest peak in the
Mozambique has numerous rivers. In the far north, the
1,100 km long Rovuma forms the border river with
Tanzania, the central region is dominated by the
Zambezi, the largest river in southern Africa with 2,660
km. This arises on the Lunda wave in Zambia and flows
into the sea at Chinde in Mozambique with a 20,000 km²
delta. An economically significant river is the
continuously navigable Maputo in the far south of the
country, which flows into the Indian Ocean near the
capital of the same name on the Delagoa-Bai.
The greater northern part of the country is under the
influence of the alternating humid tropics, while the
south is marginal tropical. This leads to a monsoon
climate in the north, which has southwest winds from May
to August and north-east winds from October to March.
The annual precipitation (up to 1,200 mm on average)
usually falls in this region from December to March. In
the south, however, there is a constant southeast wind.
April to September are cooler and dry, October to March
hot. During this time, most precipitation falls, which
averages up to 1,000 mm per year. The middle of the
country between the regions described above represents a
transition zone that shows a mixture of both climates.
The average temperatures in Beira below the Zambezi
estuary are 28 °„ C in January and 21 °„ C in July; in the
port city Maputo in the far south are three degrees
lower in January and July.
Flora and fauna
In the south of the country, the natural vegetation
consists mainly of dry savannah and bush vegetation.
This merges into an open forest to the north, which
defines most of the north and the east-central regions.
In the interior of the northern part and on the Chimoio
plateau, however, there are dense forest landscapes. The
immediate river regions have gallery forests, and
mangrove forests can be found on the coast.
Palm forests stood in the Gorongosa National Park at
the level of the Zambezi Delta in the interior. There
are also free-living gazelles, lions and warthogs. The
extensive wild animal populations also include water
buffalos, elephants, baboons, giraffes, zebras and
antelopes. In addition, numerous ungulates and wild cats
such as leopards and lions live in the country.
Crocodiles and hippos as well as various snake species
such as pythons, cobras and vipers are found near river
regions. Cranes, storks, pelicans, herons, ibises and
flamingos live all over the country, but vultures, crows
and buzzards are also among the many species of birds
found in the country.A number of large-scale reserves
offer protected habitats to the country's wild animals,
particularly in Central and South Mozambique.
Mozambique has approximately 19.4 million residents.
The largest city in the country is the capital Maputo
(until 1975 Lourenço Marques) with around one million
people in the metropolitan area; however, the number of
residents can hardly be recorded statistically due to
the countless unregistered poor settlements. According to COUNTRYAAH, 47% of the
Mozambique population belong to the Makua ethnic group,
23% are Tsonga, 12% Malawi and 11% Shona. A total of
over 70 ethnic groups live in the country, the vast
majority of whom belong to the Bantu peoples. Of the
Europeans who once lived in Mozambique, only a few
stayed in the country after the 1974 revolution, but
Mozambique is currently home to well over a million
refugees from neighboring countries.
Just under half of the population belongs to natural
religions, about 37% are Christian and 18% Muslim, with
the Muslim population group concentrated in the coastal
regions in the north. The official language is
officially Portuguese, although only a quarter of the
population speaks it as a second language. The vast
majority of Mozambicans communicate in Bantu languages.
Among these, Makua-Lomwe, Tsonga and Shona are the most
common. European and Asian languages are mainly spoken
in the port cities of Maputo, Beira, Quelimane, Nacala
Despite high birth rates, the population of the
African state grows by "only" 1.5% a year, since the
infant mortality rate is very high at 13% and moreover
12% of the population is infected with the HIV virus. In
addition, hepatitis, malaria and smallpox are common.
Life expectancy is only 40 years. About half of the
Mozambicans can read and write.
Mozambique has been a presidential republic with a
multi-party system since 1990; the current constitution
dates from 2004. The president (since February 2005
Armando Emilio Guebuza) is elected in direct election
for five years, a one-time re-election is possible. He
heads the armed forces as commander-in-chief and
appoints a government chaired by a prime minister
(Alberto Vaquina since October 2012). In addition, he
has very extensive executive powers.
The legislative body is the Assembly of the Republic,
which consists of 250 deputies who are directly elected
for five years.
The legal system is based on Portuguese law; the
Supreme Court judges are appointed in part by the
President and in part by the National Assembly.
Mozambique is divided into eleven provinces, one of
which is the city of Maputo, which also has provincial
Mozambique is one of the poorest countries in the
world: 60% of the population live below the poverty
line. The country's economy is experiencing unabated
growth, but so far only the social elite and foreign
investors have benefited from it.
Agriculture and fisheries generate almost a third of
the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Almost two
thirds of the population operate subsistence farming.
Livestock farming is hardly possible, especially in the
north due to the spread of the tsetse fly.
The existing mineral resources such as gold, copper,
iron ore and precious stones are hardly used due to the
poor infrastructure. In 2011, huge natural gas fields
were discovered off the coast. The scenic beauty
represents a tourist potential that has also not yet
A large part of the export volume is generated by
agricultural and fish products (tobacco, shrimp, sugar,
cotton, cashew nuts). The target country is South Africa
in particular. Food, machinery, oil and consumer goods
are also mainly imported from South Africa.
The country's main ports are Maputo, Beira and
Nacala. International airports can also be found in
Maputo and Beira as well as in Nampula. The rest of the
infrastructure is little developed; of the 30,000
kilometers of road, only 6,000 are paved.
Currency is the metical (= 100 centavos).