|Form of government
||traditional hereditary monarchy
||UTC + 3
|Telephone area code
Qatar (English Qatar, officially Arabic Daulat
al-Qatar) forms a peninsula that extends into the
Persian Gulf. The only neighbor of the Middle Eastern
monarchy is Saudi Arabia in the south, with which there
is a 60 km border, provisionally established in 1965 and
The land area of Qatar forms a flat limestone
plain, which is only broken by a few hills on the west
coast. The country's highest elevation is the Tuwayyir
al Hamir, 103 meters high. In the south, the limestone
plain descends into a series of salt pans, swamp areas
that are called Sebchas in the Arabic-speaking region.
There is a small group of islands in the Gulf of
Bahrain, the Rawar Islands, with Bahrain Border
disputes. With a land area of 11,437 km², Qatar is
slightly larger than Corsica. The emirate is
approximately 180 km from north to south. The country's
groundwater is saline, so drinking water is extracted
from two seawater desalination plants on the coast.
There are no permanent rivers and only a few oases that
are located on the flat limestone plain.
The capital of Qatar is Doha.
Qatar has a dry and hot desert and semi-desert
climate. The average temperature in Doha in January is
21 กใ C. In July they rise to an average of 40 กใ C. The
annual rainfall in the capital is 130 mm, in other
regions it is sometimes considerably lower. The sparse
rains fall in the winter months. Due to the proximity to
the sea, the humidity is relatively high. Nevertheless,
sand and dust storms occur regularly.
Flora and fauna
The flora of the country is very scarce due to the
dry and hot climatic conditions and only limited to a
few more fertile regions. Only a few plants thrive on
the desert and semi-desert soils, some of which are
covered with gravel, some with sand. Vegetation can only
be found in the north of the country, where the few
irrigated areas are. An exception are the few dry
valleys (wadis), in which desert plants thrive and
blossom for a short time during the spring rain.
The country's fauna is also very limited.
Nevertheless, some desert animals have adapted to the
dry and hot living conditions in this inhospitable
region. These are, on the one hand, types of mice and
spiders, on the other hand geckos and the scorpions
native to the deserts.
A special organism are the coral reefs in the coastal
waters off the peninsula, which are among the largest
living organisms on earth.
The population of the country is particularly
characterized by Islamic and ancient Arab traditions.
Cattle breeding Bedouins live as wandering nomads in the
deserts and semi-deserts and their tents are only in the
same place for a short time. With the discovery of
petroleum, part of the population has settled in
parallel to this traditional way of life in the desert.
This lives among others in the cities of Doha (339,900
residents in the metropolitan area), Ar-Rayyan (272,900
residents, metropolitan area), Al-Wakrah (31,500
residents, metropolitan area) and Umm Salal (31,600
residents, metropolitan area).
The emirate has a total population of 863,000. The
population is very heterogeneous: while 40% of the
Qatari are of Arab descent, 18% have Pakistani and just
as many Indian roots. Another large minority are
Iranians with around a tenth of the total population.
The official language is Arabic, but English is very
common as a second language. The state religion is Sunni
Islam, to which almost 93% of the population belong;
about 6% are Christians.
The Qatari school system is British; there is
compulsory schooling for both boys and girls. According to COUNTRYAAH,
of the population can read and write; among other
things, the state endeavors to train its population by
granting study grants to foreign universities. The
average life expectancy is almost 74 years, the
population growth is 3.1%, also due to the high
Qatar is a constitutional monarchy under the 2005
constitution. The Emir is the head of government, head
of state and supreme holder of the executive and
legislative branch (Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani,
since June 2013).
The advisory assembly (Madschis al-Shura) consists of
35 members appointed by the Emir. In the future, a
parliament is to be set up, of which only 45 are
appointed from the 45 deputies, the remaining 30 are
elected by the people for four years. Active and passive
voting rights should then also exist for women. There
are no parties or unions. However, the constitution
guarantees the population rights such as freedom of
speech and assembly, equality before the law and freedom
The legal system is based on the Emir's legal ruling.
At the same time, there is a set code of rules; Islamic
law applies to civil law.
The centrally administered state is divided into
seven municipalities (baladiyya).
Qatar is one of the richest countries in the world.
The country's most important and only significant export
goods are oil and natural gas. They contribute 58% to
the gross domestic product (GDP). Only 0.5% of the
population are considered unemployed.
Due to the drought and poor soil, agriculture can
only contribute 0.1% of GDP; These are mainly generated
by growing fruit and vegetables, and there are also
dairy and meat cattle and poultry farming. Fishing is
practiced in the Persian Gulf.
In addition to the rich oil reserves - the deposits
will probably last until 2060 - the country is in
possession of the world's third largest gas fields. The
country's largest heavy industry complex with oil
refinery, natural gas processing, a steel mill,
shipyard, cement and fertilizer production is located in
Umm Said, which has extensive port facilities. The Emir
is endeavoring to diversify the economy in the longer
term and to promote the development of non-petroleum
related industries. In addition, there is an intensive
search for new offshore oil fields.
One of the main problems in the country is the lack
of fresh water supplies. Large industrial plants
therefore desalinate sea water and make it usable. Food
has to be imported almost completely (from France, Great
Britain, Germany and Japan). The largest buyer of Qatari
products is Japan with 28%, followed by South Korea and
The international airport is located in the capital,
The currency is the Qatari rial.