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The Republic of Romania is located in south-east
Europe and, with an area of 238,391 km², is about two
thirds the size of Germany. The country borders Ukraine
to the north, Moldova to the northeast and east , the
Black Sea to the east, Bulgaria to the south, Serbia to
the west and Hungary to the west .
The core area of Romania is the hilly highlands of
Transylvania (Transylvania), which are crossed by
numerous valleys and rivers. The Carpathian Mountains
stretch around Transylvania in the northeast, east and
south. In the southern part of the Carpathian Mountains
(Transilvanian Alps) is the country's highest peak, the
Moldoveanu with 2 543 m. To the east, the Carpathian
Mountains are initially connected to mountainous
foothills, which in the northern and central part merge
into the heavily structured Vltava plateau, in the
southern part into the Danube lowland. In the far east
is the Dobruudda hills with the Danube Delta. Wallachia
is the largest plain in the country in southern Romania.
In the west, the core area of Transylvania borders
on the Apuseni Mountains (Western Transylvania
Mountains), which reach heights of up to 1,800 m. To the
west of it, Romania has a share in the Hungarian Alföld
(Great Hungarian Lowlands) and in the Serbian Banat, the
Banat Mountains connect to the Southern Carpathians.
Romania's longest river is the Danube, which flows
through the country for a length of about 1 089 km. It
marks the border with Bulgaria in the south and
Yugoslavia in the southwest. The Danube Delta in the
east of the country is the second largest river delta in
Europe with a total of 5,640 km². About a fifth of the
delta is located on Ukrainian territory. The second
largest river in Romania with about 768 km is the Mures,
a tributary of the Tisza.
The capital Bucharest (Bucuresti) is located in the
southeast of the country in the Danube lowland.
Romania's climate is moderately continental and is
characterized by warm summers and cold winters. The
average July temperature in the capital Bucharest in the
southeast of the country is 23 กใ C, in January the
average is -2.5 กใ C. In Cluj Napoca in Transylvania, the
average temperatures are slightly lower (July 20 กใ C,
January -3.5 กใ C). Rainfall is generally lower in the
east than in the west of the country. On the Black Sea
coast there are around 400 mm annually, up to 650 mm in
the west. Up to 2,000 mm can be reached in the
mountains. The rainfall is distributed all year round.
Flora and fauna
Almost 30% of Romania's land area is forested. Beech
and oak forests are mainly found in Transylvania, in the
Apuseni Mountains and on the slopes of the Carpathians.
At higher altitudes from around 1,500 m there are mixed
forests, which then merge into coniferous forests
(mainly spruce and fir). Grass corridors can be found
above around 1,800 m. Most of the forest stands on the
plains have been cleared. The floodplain forests along
the course of the Danube are an exception, here poplar,
ash and willow trees grow, for example. A large number
of swamp and reed plants can be found in the Danube
Delta. A specialty here are carnivorous plants such as
water hose and Wasserhade.
The inaccessible mountain forests offer a suitable
habitat for bears, wolves, wild cats, lynxes and deer.
Wild boars, foxes, otters and beaver rats live in the
Danube Delta. The bird life in the Danube Delta includes
pelicans, flamingos, cormorants and herons. Dolphins and
monk seals can be found off the coast.
Around 22.31 million people live in Romania, about
half of them in cities. By far the largest city is
Bucharest with 1.95 million residents. Other cities
include Constance (Constanta) on the Black Sea with
315,000 residents, Jassy (Iasi, 325,000) and Temesvar
(Timisoara, 320,000). The average population density is
91 people per square kilometer. Alone a tenth of the
population lives in the Bucharest region in the Danube
lowland, Transylvania and the Banat (southern foothills
of the Southern Carpathians) are also densely populated.
According to COUNTRYAAH, 90% of the population are Romanians who are
descendants of the Indo-European Dacians. The largest
ethnic minority are Hungarians, who have a share of
almost 7% of the total population and mostly live in
Transylvania. Sinti and Roma still make up an estimated
2% of the population today; other minorities are
Ukrainians, Russians, Serbs, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Turks
and around 100,000 ethnic Germans who are descendants of
the Germans who immigrated to Transylvania in the 12th
century. A total of 18 recognized minorities live in
Romania, whose rights are now enshrined in the 1991
The official language is Romanian, which is one of
the Eastern Romanic languages. The languages of the
ethnic minorities are also spoken regionally. Around 87%
of the population belong to the Romanian Orthodox
Church, religious minorities are Catholics, Protestants,
Jews and Muslims.
In Romania there is a comprehensive social insurance
system, the healthcare system is well developed and free
of charge. The average life expectancy is 75 for women
and 68 for men. Population growth is slightly negative.
Children aged six and over are required to attend school
for nine years. The literacy rate is over 98%.
According to the 1991 constitution, Romania is a
presidential republic with a multi-party system, the
legal system of which is modeled on that of France. The
head of state is the president, elected directly by the
people for five years (Traian Besescu since December
2004), who has far-reaching powers in the highly
centralized state. The head of the government is the
Prime Minister (since May 2012 Victor Ponta), who is
appointed by the President and himself calls the
ministers into office.
Parliament as a legislative body is made up of two
chambers: the Chamber of Deputies with 334 MPs and the
Senate with 137 Senators. The members of both chambers
are directly elected by the people for a term of four
Romania is divided into 41 districts (Judete) and the
Romania is a highly industrialized country. More than
three quarters of its exports are industrial goods or
machines. However, a quarter of the population still
lives on the poverty line; Administration and the legal
system continue to operate inefficiently and are often
corrupt. The sharp rise in exports is offset by an
increase in imports.
The long-term forecasts for the Romanian economy are
nevertheless good: in addition to fertile soils, the
country has rich mineral resources (oil, natural gas,
coal, iron ores, silver, gold, uranium). The numerous
loss-making companies, which are still state-owned, are
proving to be an obstacle to an upswing; the
government's reform course also includes extensive
The agricultural sector in Romania employs about a
third of all the workforce and generates 7% of the gross
domestic product (GDP). The main crops are corn,
cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine and sunflowers.
Sheep, cattle and pig farming are important in cattle
Structural change has been taking place in the
traditionally dominant industries of mechanical
engineering, metallurgy, chemistry, oil industry and
petrochemicals for several years. The share of industry
in GDP is around 32%.
The main export goods in Romania are industrial
primary products, metals, machines and means of
transport; the goods are mainly delivered to Germany,
Italy and Hungary. Most of the imports (machines and
means of transport, fuels and industrial intermediate
products) come from these countries.
The road network in Romania covers a total of around
200,000 km, around half of which is paved. Approx.
11,500 km are available on rails. There are eight
international airports, the most important of which are
the capital Bucharest (Bucuresti) and Temesvar
(Timisoara). The most important port on the Black Sea is
Constanta. Important inland waterways are the Danube and
the Danube-Black Sea Canal.
Currency is the leu (plural: lei; corresponds to 100