San Marino Overview
|Repubblica di San Marino
|Form of government
||CET (UTC + 1)
|Telephone area code
The Republic of San Marino is located in the east of
the Apennine Peninsula and is one of the smallest
countries in the world with an area of 61 km²
(north-south extension 12 km). The country is an enclave
within the Italian territory.
San Marino is located on the eastern slope of the
Etruscan Appenine at about the height of the Italian
city of Rimini. The center of the country is occupied by
the limestone massif of Monte Titano with its three
peaks, the highest of which reaches around 740 m. To the
northeast, the massif drops steeply to a plain, in the
south there is a hilly landscape.
The capital of the same name is located on Monte
San Marino has a Mediterranean climate. The average
July temperatures are around 23 กใ C, the winters are
short, due to the high altitude, the average
temperatures in January are just below freezing. The
average annual rainfall is 750 mm, the rainiest month is
November, the summers are relatively dry.
Flora and fauna
Typical Mediterranean vegetation with holm oak,
maple, elm, pine and olive trees can be found on the
mountain slopes of Monte Titano. Macchia grows in the
cleared areas. Laurel, lavender and myrtle bushes are
Deer and weasels live in the forests, otherwise there
are mainly animal species such as foxes, rabbits,
hedgehogs and martens that live near human settlements
(culture followers). The bird life is rich in species,
in addition to songbirds such as nightingale, goldfinch
and oriole there are also falcons that breed in the
niches of the mountain slopes.
Around 29,000 people live in San Marino, with an
average population density of 475 people per square
kilometer. The country's two largest cities are
Serravalle in the north (9,500 residents) and San Marino
(almost 5,000 residents). Over 13,000 San Marines live
In the state itself, San Marines make up over three
quarters of the population; about 22% are Italians. The
official language is Italian, Romagnol is spoken as a
vernacular, a regional dialect. Over 95% of the
population belong to the Roman Catholic Church.
The standard of living in the small republic is high,
social and health services are well developed. The
average life expectancy is given as 82 years, which is
even higher than the European average. According to COUNTRYAAH,
growth is 1.3%. School attendance is compulsory for
children between the ages of seven and 15; 96% of the
population can read and write.
The basis for the political system of the Republic of
San Marino is the constitution from 1599 (revised
several times until today). Legislative power is held by
the "Great and General Council" (Consiglio Grande e
Generale), whose 60 members are directly elected by the
people for a term of five years. Each year, the Council
elects two of its members to the so-called governing
captains (Capitani reggenti), each of whom is in office
for six months. A re-election to the captain is possible
after three years at the earliest (this corresponds to
six terms of office). The captains exercise the
executive together with the State Council (which
consists of ten members elected by the Grand Council).
This "Council of 12"
San Marino is divided into nine municipalities
San Marino is one of the wealthiest countries in the
world. Tourism accounts for a quarter of the country's
gross domestic product (GDP); more than two million
people visit the small republic every year. In addition
to the tourist attractions (historic fortifications),
the country is considered a shopping paradise due to the
low taxes. 10% of government revenue comes from the sale
of stamps and collector coins. Other important economic
sectors are the small industry (textile, electronics and
ceramics) and the service sector (banks). Agriculture
plays an extremely minor role and only accounts for 0.1%
of GDP. Important products are wine, olives, wheat and
cheese. Food has to be imported.
The economy of San Marino is closely linked to that
of Italy, and a customs and currency union has existed
since the 19th century. Almost all imports (including
food, beverages and energy) come from Italy.
San Marino is connected to the nearest Italian city
of Rimini by an expressway. The road network covers a
total of 220 km.
The currency is the euro.