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The Republic of Serbia is located in the center of
the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe and borders
on Hungary in the north, Romania and Bulgaria in the
east, Macedonia and Kosovo in the south, Montenegro in
the southwest and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the west .
After Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Macedonia left Yugoslavia, founded in 1918, in 1991/92,
Serbia and Montenegro initially existed as (remaining)
Yugoslavia and from 2003 to 2006 as a confederation of
states. Serbia has been an independent state since
Montenegro's independence. The capital is Belgrade. The
area of the country is 77,474 km².
The north of Serbia belongs to the Pannonian Plain.
The Dinaric Mountains in the west and the Balkan
Mountains in the east are connected by several low
mountain ranges in the middle of the country. Middle and
high mountains can also be found in the south of the
country. The highest mountain is the Midzor with 2 169
m. The longest river is the Danube with a length of 588
km. Its tributaries include Morava, Tisza and Sava. The
largest lake in Serbia is the Djerdapsee with 163 m².
The predominant continental climate in Serbia is
temperate in the south. This leads to short and cold
winters and warm summers with an average of 23ºC in
July. A mountain climate prevails in the high mountains
in the south, which prolongs the winter there. The
average rainfall is 896 mm.
Flora and fauna
About a third of the country is forested; Downy oak,
chestnut and hornbeam grow especially in the Pannonian
Basin. In some protected areas, the vegetation is
particularly diverse (Fruška Gora: linden forests, rare
medicinal plants; Lovcen: primeval forest area with
beech, sycamore, black pine, ash, etc.).
The forests of Serbia offer a suitable habitat for
numerous rare animals; here you can still find brown
bears, wild cats, wolves and lynxes. Foxes, wild boars,
martens, badgers and red deer are represented in large
numbers. In the higher mountain ranges there are chamois
and mountain goats. Bird life, which covers 80% of all
European bird species, includes golden eagles, scops
owl, black grouse and capercaillie, bald and griffon
Around 7.44 million people live in Serbia. Minorities
from the other states of the former Yugoslavia also live
here, whereby the groups of Montenegrins, Yugoslavs,
Albanians, Bosniaks and Croats each only make up around
one to two percent of the total population. The largest
minority are the almost 4% Hungarians. Sinti and Roma,
Romanians, Slovaks and Wallachians also live in Serbia.
Population growth in Serbia is currently zero, also due
to the ongoing migration of certain ethnic groups.
According to COUNTRYAAH, 85% of the people in Serbia belong to the
Serbian Orthodox Church. There are also a small number
of Catholic (5.5%) and Protestant (1.1%) Christians.
The capital Belgrade is the largest city in the
country with an estimated 1.3 million residents. This is
followed by Novi Sad with around 191,000 and Niš with
around 174,000 residents. More than half of the
population lives in cities.
Serbian is the official language and is understood
and spoken almost everywhere in the country. The font
has been officially Cyrillic since 2006, but the Latin
alphabet still occurs.
After the independence of Montenegro, the Republic of
Serbia has been the successor to the State Union of
Serbia and Montenegro, the successor to the Republic of
Yugoslavia, since June 5, 2006.
According to the constitution that came into force in
November 2006, the head of state of the republic, the
president (since May 2012 Tomislav Nikolić), is elected
by the people for five years; re-election is possible.
The Prime Minister of Serbia has been Ivica Dačić since
July 2012. The one-chamber parliament (Narodna
skupština), which is elected for four years, has 250
Important parties are the Serbian Progress Party
(SNS), the Democratic Party (DS), the Socialist Party of
Serbia (SPS) and others
Serbia is divided into 17 districts and one city. The
autonomous province of Wojwodina belongs to the
Republic. The rest of the country does not form its own
political unit and is therefore only referred to
informally as closer Serbia or central Serbia.
The Serbian economy is in transition to a free market
economy and is trying to overcome the consequences of
political and economic isolation under Milosevic. The
high unemployment rate (estimated between 20 and 30%),
public debt, which is more than half of the gross
national product, and the high number of people employed
in the agricultural sector (24%) continue to weaken the
Sugar beet, corn, potatoes, wheat and fruit are
grown. Animal husbandry and viticulture are also
important depending on the region. The mostly outdated
industrial plants serve the further processing of food
(especially sugar) and the production of agricultural
machines, paper, lead and simple electrical devices.
Tourism has largely failed to materialize since the
Balkan Wars and is currently being promoted.
Energy is mainly generated by coal and hydro power
The road network is 45 290 kilometers long. Serbia
has 3,809 kilometers of railway lines. The international
airport of Belgrade plays the most important role for
air traffic. There is also an international airport in
Serbian currency is the Serbian dinar.