|Republic of Singapura (malay.)Republic
||Malay, Chinese, Tamil, English
|Form of government
||parliamentary republic (in the commonwealth)
||UTC + 8
|Telephone area code
Singapore, an independent state since 1965, is a
small, very densely populated country with around 682.7
km² and over 4.42 million residents. It consists of 55
islands that lie in front of the southern tip of the
Malay Peninsula (Malacca). 90% of the country's total
area is on the largest of the islands, Singapore. A 1.2
km long dam leads over the Strait of Johor and connects
the island with the mainland of Malaysia. The highest
point in Singapore is Timah Hill (Bukit Timah) in the
center of the main island at around 177 m. The landscape
is flat-waved and crossed by many smaller bodies of
water. The largest rivers are the Singapore, the Seletar
and the Rochor. The land area is constantly increasing
due to fillings on the coasts.
Singapore has a tropical climate: year-round, the
high temperatures are not subject to major fluctuations;
the average temperature in the capital in January and
July is around 27 ¡ã C. The frequent rainfall is
distributed throughout the year (around 2,400 mm) with a
slight increase in the months of November to January and
ensures high humidity.
Flora and fauna
The forests that exist on Singapore today were all
planted after the rainforest that once covered the
island was completely cleared. Due to the population
density, there is little original vegetation left, apart
from the mangrove forests on the coastal regions.
Due to the sparse living space, the animal world is
also very limited. In the mangrove forests there are a
variety of different bird and snake species (such as the
cobra). Larger wild mammals are mainly different types
of monkeys such as the Plumplori, which belongs to the
In the Republic of Singapore, 6,474 people live in
one square kilometer, in some parts of the city the
population density is significantly higher due to the
high-rise buildings. Population growth is around 1.5%.
Over three quarters of the population are Chinese whose
ancestors immigrated to the islands during the British
colonial period. At around 15%, the Malays form the
largest minority, most of whom live in the hinterland of
the main island or on the smaller islands. Relatives of
Indian peoples (around 7%) live mainly in the capital
Singapore in a separate district (Serangoon Road).
The most widespread religion in Singapore, around
43%, is Buddhism. According to COUNTRYAAH, 15% of the population, mostly
Malays, are followers of Islam. The third largest faith
group with around 13% are Christians, followed by
Taoists (9%) and Hindus. The official languages in
Singapore reflect the composition of the population:
Chinese (Mandarin and the dialects Hokkien, Cantonese
and others), Malay, Tamil and English are spoken
Life expectancy in Singapore is 82 years. There is no
compulsory schooling for children, but there is a right
to free education. The illiteracy rate is around 7%.
Singapore is a parliamentary republic (in the
Commonwealth), the constitution is from 1959. The head
of state is the President (since September 2011 Tony Tan
Keng Yam), who is directly elected by the people for six
years. He appoints the ministers, who in turn are
responsible to the parliament. The head of government is
the Prime Minister (Lee Hsien Loong since August 2004).
The unicameral parliament has 87 seats, the members
are elected for five years. Up to nine MPs can also be
appointed. Parliament has been dominated by the People's
Action Party (PAP) since independence. The mere majority
voting right limits the opposition's chances of being
elected. In Singapore, every citizen aged 20 and over is
required to participate in elections.
The legal system is based on British common law.
Singapore is divided into five districts.
Singapore is one of the most prosperous countries in
the world and is one of the industrialized nations. The
basis for this prosperity was the strategically
favorable location of the city-state in the past
centuries, today the port of Singapore is a big
transshipment point for goods from all over the world.
As a banking and financial center, the country is also
among the world leaders. There are well over 100 banks
in Singapore, almost 90% of which are branches of
foreign companies. Corruption is practically unknown.
Agriculture in Singapore is virtually irrelevant.
Only around 1% of the country's area is used for
agriculture. All food must be imported, including
drinking water, which comes into the country from
Malaysia via a pipeline.
Raw materials must also be imported, with the
exception of granite, Singapore has no deposits.
Nevertheless, industry generates more than a quarter of
its gross domestic product (including electronics, oil
processing, machinery and equipment, ship repair and,
increasingly, biotechnology / pharmacy). Tourism also
plays an important role. The main trading partners are
Malaysia, China, Indonesia and the USA. The currency is
the Singapore dollar.