South Sudan Overview
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After the southern Sudan 2005-2011 already autonomy
status within the Sudan had achieved, he said on July 9,
2011 as the Republic of South Sudan's independence. With
a size of approximately 620,000 km², about a third of
the area of the former Sudan , the new state borders
Sudan in the north, the Central African Republic in the
west, Uganda , the Democratic Republic of the Congo and
Kenya in the south and in the east Ethiopia .
In the north of South Sudan there are savannas and
dry forests, in the south the country is bordered by the
Asande and the Central African threshold. The country's
highest mountain (Kinyeti 3 187 m) is located in the
southern border area to Uganda. In the south of the
country is the large swamp and flood area of the Sudd,
which consists of countless water courses of the Nile
and its tributaries and often impenetrable vegetation.
South Sudan is characterized by a tropical climate
with high temperatures and a lot of rain. The rainy
season falls from April to November, the majority of the
average 1,000 mm of precipitation per year falls during
The temperatures in South Sudan are always above 30 กใ
C during the day, even at night they hardly drop below
20 กใ C. With 35-37 กใ C it is the hottest in the months
of November to February.
Flora and fauna
South Sudan is very different from the
desert-dominated Sudan in the north. In the north and
center of southern Sudan, fertile soils predominate, on
which savannas and dry forests can be found. In addition
to lions, hyenas and leopards, the fauna of South Sudan
mainly includes gazelles, giraffes, ostriches, buffalo
and elephants. Their inventory is declining. Two
national parks and reserves are said to secure it.
The most fertile zone in the country is in the south
in the flood areas of the Sudd. Papyrus, reed grasses,
hyacinth plants and many different marsh plants grow
here, as well as remnants of tropical rainforests with
mahogany trees. Crocodiles and hippos as well as
numerous water birds also live in the rivers. The Nile
swamp areas of the Sudd are extremely rich in fish,
which is the basis of life for the local population.
In 2005, to end the civil war that had been going on
for more than 20 years, a peace agreement was signed
that granted South Sudan autonomy within Sudan. This
peace agreement also regulated a referendum on the
independence of South Sudan, which was held in January
2011 and was adopted by 99% of South Sudanese. As a
result, South Sudan gained independence on July 9, 2011.
It is estimated that a good eight million people live
in South Sudan, which corresponds to about a quarter of
the population of the former entire Sudan. The education
and health of the South Sudanese population are
generally considered poor, almost three quarters of the
population are illiterate and one quarter malnourished.
In contrast to Islamic Sudan, South Sudan is mainly
Christian. Of the approximately eight million residents,
just over three million are Catholics or Anglicans.
There are also many followers of local tribal or natural
According to COUNTRYAAH,
the population of South Sudan is made up of a large
number of heterogeneous tribes, the most important of
which are Dinka, Nuba, Beja, Nuer as well as Azande,
Fur, and Kawahla.
South Sudan declared independence on July 9, 2011 as
a republican, presidential democracy. The constitution
is a transitional constitution. The President of South
Sudan is Salva Kiir Mayardit (since July 2001), who has
been Vice President of the National Unity Government
under Sudan's President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir
since 2005. The president is directly elected by the
people every five years. The parliament has 170 members.
Unlike Sudan's Islamic Sharia law, the legal system
of the is based on British common law.
The administrative structure of Sudan has been
retained; South Sudan is divided into ten of the
formerly 26 states of the former all of Sudan.
The most important industry is agriculture, which is
responsible for the majority of jobs in South Sudan.
However, due to the years of civil war, large parts of
the actually fertile soil are not cultivated, which
leads to famines and poverty within the population. The
returning refugees exacerbate this problem.
The main source of income for South Sudan is the
export of oil. Around three quarters of all former
Sudanese oil sources have been located in South Sudan
since independence. To export the oil, however, it is
necessary to transport it via pipelines from Sudan to
the Red Sea. In February 2012, South Sudan completely
stopped producing oil. The reason is that Sudan's
transit fees are too high. This brought about a collapse
in the state revenue of both countries.
The rail link between Wau and Khartoum was reopened
in 2010. The road network is mostly unpaved. There are
international airports in Juba and Malakal.
The currency is the South Sudanese pound.