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The Republic of Togo is located in West Africa on the
Gulf of Guinea and, with an area of 56.785 km², is
slightly larger than the German state of Lower Saxony.
The country stretches from the Atlantic coast in the
south as a narrow (up to 140 km wide) strip to the north
over a length of almost 600 km inland. Togo borders
Burkina Faso there. To the east lies Benin , the west
The flat compensation coast on the Gulf of Guinea in
the south of Togo is only 56 km long and characterized
by spits and lagoons. Towards the north, the narrow
coastal plain is followed by the flat-waved hilly
landscape "Terre de Barre", which reaches heights of up
to 150 m and has fertile clay soils. In the western part
of Togo, the Togo Mountains join, here is the highest
elevation in the country, the Agou (Mont Baumann) with
986 m. In the eastern part there is a plateau (approx.
400 m above sea level) with isolated island mountains.
North of the plateau, the continuation of the Togo
Mountains (Togo-Atakora chain) continues in a west-east
direction to the neighboring country of Benin.
In the north of Togo lies the Oti lowland, which is
drained by the river of the same name. In addition to
the Oti, which flows into the Volta, the Mano is another
major river in the south of the country. The capital
Lom¨¦ is located on the Gulf of Guinea.
The climate in Togo is tropical with almost constant
high temperatures all year round. The annual average
temperature on the coast is around 27 ¡ã C, in the
northern part of the country just under 30 ¡ã C. In the
south and in the center there are two rainy seasons,
which last from March to July and from September to
October. Precipitation amounts to an average of 1,500 mm
per year on the coast, up to 2,000 mm on the south side
of the Togo Mountains and significantly less on the
north side. In the north of the country, the rainy
season lasts from mid-March to mid-October, with up to
1,200 mm of precipitation. Flooding can occur in the Oti
Plain. In winter the Harmattan desert wind can occur in
Flora and fauna
In the drier regions of the Republic of Togo (Oti
Plain, northern flanks of the Togo Mountains) there is
dry savannah with grassy corridors and isolated trees
and shrubs. On the plateau and in the hilly landscape of
Terre de Barre, wet savannah with small forests and
gallery forests dominates along river courses. Small
stocks of evergreen rainforest can be found on the
western flanks of the Togo Mountains. In the area of
the coast there are mangroves and coconut palms.
Many animal species have been severely decimated due
to the restriction of their habitat. Today there are
three nature reserves in Togo, the largest of which is
K¨¦ran in the north of Togo (1,600 km²). Here you will
find typical animal species for the dry savannah, such
as lions, elephants, leopards, hyenas, antelopes and
Almost 5.45 million people live in Togo, about a
third of them in cities. The largest city is Lome on the
Gulf of Guinea with about 825,000 residents, other
larger cities are Palim¨¦ (47,500 residents), Sokod¨¦
(77,000) and Lama-Kara (48,500). The average population
density in Togo is 96 people per square kilometer.
More than 40 ethnic groups with social and cultural
peculiarities live in Togo. The two largest groups with
over 43% are members of the Kwa (Ewe) and the Volta
peoples. The Volta include the Kabye, Temba, Losso,
Gurma and Moba. Minorities are Fulbe, Haussa and
Europeans. The official language in Togo is French,
alongside African tribal languages, mainly Kaby¨¨ (Tem)
in the north and Ewe in the south.
According to COUNTRYAAH, half of the population are followers of natural
religions, Christians have a share of approx. 28%
(mostly Catholics), whereby the Christian faith is often
combined with traditional religious practices. Muslims
make up about a fifth of the population.
The population growth is 2.7%. 43% of the population
are under the age of 15; the infant mortality rate is
6.6% and the HIV infection rate is 3.2%. The average
life expectancy is 53 years. School attendance is
compulsory for children between the ages of six and 15.
The literacy rate is an average of almost 61%, but is
significantly higher in urban areas. A university was
founded in 1970 in the capital Lom¨¦.
According to the 1993 constitution, Togo is a
presidential republic with a multi-party system. The
head of state is the President elected for a term of
five years (since July 2012 Kwesi Ahoomey-Zunu). The
government is run by the Prime Minister (Gilbert F.
Houngbo since September 2008), who is appointed by the
The legislature lies with the National Assembly with
a total of 91 seats. The people are elected by the
people for a term of five years.
The legal system is based on the French.
Togo is divided into five regions.
Togo's economy is based on the extraction of raw
materials (phosphate) and agriculture. Despite the
reform process initiated in 2006, the crisis of the past
few decades has not yet been overcome. Almost 60% of the
population lives below the poverty line.
Agriculture employs more than half of the workforce,
and this sector contributes 47% to gross domestic
product (GDP). Jams, cassava, maize, millet, rice and
beans are mainly grown for the people's own needs.
Cotton, cocoa and coffee are cultivated for export.
Fishing plays a role in providing the population with
Togo is a regional trade and business center in West
Africa. Services generate a third of GDP.
Industry generates a fifth of GDP and focuses on the
processing of phosphate and food and the production of
cement and clinker.
The most important trading partners for exports
(phosphate, cotton, coffee, cocoa, cement, clinker) are
Burkina Faso, Ghana and Benin. Machines and vehicles,
industrial goods, food and fuel are mainly imported. The
most important suppliers are neighboring China, France
The road network covers around 7,250 km, of which
around 2,300 km are paved. 570 km of railway lines are
available. The main ports of Togo are Lom¨¦ and Kp¨¦m¨¦.
There are two international airports.
The currency is the CFA franc.