|Republic of Uganda
|Form of government
||UTC + 3
|Telephone area code
The Republic of Uganda is located in East Africa and
borders Sudan in the north, Kenya in the east, Rwanda
and Tanzania in the south and the Democratic Republic of
the Congo in the west . In the southeast, the country
has a share in Lake Victoria. With an area of around
240,000 km², the country is about the size of Great
The largest part of the country is formed by a
plateau (around 1,000 to 1,500 m above sea level), which
slopes slightly towards the northwest. In the west, the
plateau is bordered by the Central African Rift Valley.
Here lies the chain of Edward, George and Albert Lakes.
In the Ruwenzori Mountains, the Margherita peak is the
highest elevation at 5.109 m. To the east is the Mount
Elgon massif (with heights of up to approx. 4,300 m), to
the south the Rwandan mountains with the Virunga
volcanoes, which rise up to 4,100 m.
The most important river in Uganda is the Victoria
Nile, which originates from Lake Victoria near Jinja and
connects it with Lake Kyoga and Lake Albert. With an
area of around 68,800 km², Lake Victoria is the
largest lake in Africa, in which the neighboring
countries of Tanzania and Kenya also have a share. The
capital Kampala (since 1962) in the south of the country
is the largest city in the country with around 1.34
million residents, followed by a large distance by Gulu
(140,000 residents) and Lira (113,000).
Despite the proximity of the equator, Uganda has a
temperate tropical climate. The average temperatures in
Entebbe in the south of the country (around 1,150 m
above sea level) are around 22 กใ C in January, around 21
กใ C in July, the amount of precipitation is over 1,500
mm, in the north of the country approx . 760 mm. The
rainy season lasts from April to September.
Flora and fauna
The vast majority of Uganda consists of moist
savannah, which is characterized by tall grass, groups
of trees and so-called gallery forests (extremely
species-rich and fertile strips of vegetation that lie
along rivers or lakes). At lower altitudes, the wet
savannah merges into dense tropical mountain forest.
Here you can find giant tapestries and giant senec,
which protrude up to 3 m high from the damp ground. In
the center of Uganda is a branched swamp and lake area
that belongs to the upper reaches of the Nile. The drier
north and northeast are determined by dry savannah,
partly by semi-deserts.
Uganda's wildlife is as diverse as the flora. In the
1970s and 1980s, the large game populations (eg rhinos,
elephants, Cape buffalos, hippos) were largely decimated
by poaching, some of which are in the process of
recovering. This does not apply, for example, to black
and white rhinos, which are considered to be virtually
extinct. Uganda includes a variety of different antelope
species (eg topis, cow antelope), big cats such as
lions, leopards and cheetahs, zebras and various types
of monkeys such as baboons, chimpanzees and vervet
monkeys. The extremely rare monkey species include, for
example, the colobus in the Ruwenzori Mountains; This is
also where the mountain gorillas, who became famous
worldwide through the behavioral scientist Dian Fossey.
National parks and reserves have been set up in Uganda
to protect the sometimes very endangered wildlife, the
best known of which is the Queen Elizabeth National
Park, which is famous for its natural beauty and
biodiversity. But it has been shown that the protective
measures are often not sufficient: more and more land
that actually belongs to the protected area is being
taken up by the population and used for their purposes.
The measures against poaching also do not seem to be
sufficient.is consumed by the population and used for
their purposes. The measures against poaching also do
not seem to be sufficient.
Uganda has over 50 different races and ethnic groups.
More than half of them belong to the Bantu peoples, here
the Baganda with around 18% are the numerically
strongest people (besides Basoga with approx. 8%, Bagisu
with approx. 7% among others). The Nilotic peoples live
mainly in the north of the country (among them the Teso
with approx. 9%, Karamojong and Lango). There are small
groups of Europeans and Asians.
Around two thirds of the population belong to
Christian religions, in addition to a Muslim minority of
16%, just under 18% of the population are followers of
natural religions. The official languages are English
and Swahili, with each ethnic group using its own
languages and dialects. A good two thirds of the
population can read and write.
The estimated population is 27.3 million people.
Uganda is relatively densely populated with around 113
residents per square kilometer, the vast majority of the
population lives in scattered rural areas. However, the
data on population size and composition vary greatly due
to the large number of refugees, who come mainly from
Sudan, but also from the Democratic Republic of the
Congo and Rwanda. According to COUNTRYAAH,
population growth is currently a high
3.2% and life expectancy 52 years.
The number of people infected with HIV is estimated
at 6.7% (as of 2005) of the total population and
continues to increase despite information campaigns. An
additional threat is the repeated appearance of the
deadly Ebola virus, against which there are no effective
medications to date.
Uganda is a presidential republic, the current
constitution dates from 1995. The president (Yoweri
Kaguta Museveni since January 1986) is elected by the
people for five years. The Prime Minister (since
September 2014 Ruhakana Rugunda) only supports the
President in running the cabinet.
The parliament has 375 members who are elected for
five years (350 direct, 25 indirect).
Uganda is divided into four regions with 112
Uganda has seen a significant improvement in the
economic situation since the early 1990s. The country
has large reserves of raw materials and fertile soils. A
quarter of the population still lives below the poverty
line; In 1992 it was over half.
Over 80% of all workers are employed in agriculture.
The main crops are coffee, tobacco, tea and cotton for
export, as well as millet, cassava, bananas, sweet
potatoes, sugar cane, corn and peanuts for personal use
(a large part of the population operates a subsistence
economy). Livestock farming (cattle, goats, poultry)
also plays a role here. Forestry is important due to the
export of fine woods such as mahogany.
In the Ruwenzori Mountains, copper is mined for
export, and cobalt is also mined. Further deposits of
mineral resources (eg large oil and gas reserves, as
well as phosphates, tin, gold) are not yet being mined.
The industry is poorly developed (especially near Jinja
and Kampala), there are, for example, cement plants,
food and textile processing companies and breweries.
It exports to Kenya, Congo, Rwanda and Switzerland.
Uganda has to import industrial goods, fuels, machines
and vehicles and mainly obtains them from India, China
and Kenya. The country can meet almost all of its energy
needs with its own hydropower plants.
Since the domestic political situation has
stabilized, the tourism industry has recorded high
growth rates again. The main attractions are the
national parks of the country.
The currency is the Ugandan shilling.