|Republic of Zambia
|Form of government
||UTC + 2
|Telephone area code
The Republic of Zambia is a landlocked country in the
transition area between Central and South Africa. With
an area of 752.614 km², the country is more than twice
the size of Germany. The republic is named after one of
the country's numerous rivers, the Zambezi. Zambia
borders on Tanzania in the northeast, Malawi in the
east, Mozambique in the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana
in the south, Namibia in the southwest , Angola in the
west and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the
Thanks to the Katanga peak, which extends deep into
the Zambian state territory in the north and belongs to
the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the country is
divided into a northeastern and a southwestern region.
The largest part of the country is occupied by a high
plateau rising from south to north, which lies at an
altitude of 1,000 to 1,500 m above sea level and is
dominated by individual island mountains and mountain
ranges. The highest elevation in the country (1,848 m)
is in the Muchina Mountains, which extend from the
southern tip of the Katanga peak towards the northeast
to the border with Tanzania. To the southeast, the
mountains are bordered by the Luangwa Valley, which
continues as the Zambezi Valley. The Makuta mountains
are located northwest of the Muchina Mountains in the
border area with Tanzania.
The numerous rivers and lakes of Zambia represent
almost half of the fresh water reserves in southern
Africa. The most important river in Zambia is the
Zambezi, which flows through the country over a length
of around 1,550 m (total length 2,660 km). On the border
with Zimbabwe, the Zambezi falls over a width of 1,700 m
over 110 m (Victoria Falls). Other large rivers include
the Kafue in the central part of Zambia and the Luangwa
and Luapula in the east. Zambia's largest lakes include
Lake Mweru (on the border with the Democratic Republic
of the Congo), Lake Tanganyika (which also includes the
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Tanzania)
and Lake Kariba, a reservoir.
The capital Lusaka is in the southeast of the
Zambia has a tropical climate with a rainy season
from October to April. The average rainfall in the north
is around 1,400 mm, in the south around 750 mm. The
precipitation often falls as heavy thunderstorms. In the
capital Lusaka, the average January temperature is 22 กใ
C, in July values around 16 กใ C are measured. In
general, the temperatures in the river lowlands are
somewhat higher than in the highlands.
Flora and fauna
Almost 40% of the country is covered with forests.
In the southwest there is rain forest, in the river
valleys and on the high plateau deciduous dry forests
(with baobab and mukunya trees) or evergreen forests. In
the flooded areas, grasslands and swamps dominate with
extensive papyrus growth. The central part of the
country is characterized by wet savannah with open
grasslands and individual groups of trees (acacias).
The wildlife in Zambia is one of the most biodiverse
on the African continent. A total of 19 protected areas
have been established (and cover around 9% of the
country's area), the largest of which is the 22,500 km²
Kafue National Park. Larger species of mammals include
rhinos, elephants, hippos, giraffes, buffalos, monkeys,
lions, leopards, hyenas, antelopes and zebras. In the
Lochinvar National Park alone, more than 400 different
bird species were counted.
According to COUNTRYAAH, 11.28 million people live in Zambia, about 40% of
them in cities. The largest city is the capital Lusaka
with around 1.5 million residents (due to the
unregulated influx from abroad there are only
estimates). Other large cities are Ndola (population
380,000), Kitwe (365,000) and Kabwe (180,000). The
average population density is 15 people per square
The population is made up of over 70 ethnic groups,
most of whom belong to the Bantu peoples. The largest
population group are the Bemba (approx. 36%), followed
by the Nenya (Nyanya, approx. 18%, including Chewa,
Nsenga, Ngoni) and Tonga (approx. 15%, Lenje, Soli,
Ila). Other groups are the Luvale, Lunda and Kaonde in
the northwest of the country and the Barotse (Rotse).
Minorities are Europeans, Asians and Bushmen.
In addition to English, there are seven officially
recognized tribal languages (Bemba, Nyanya, Lozi,
Tonga, Lunda, Kaonde, Luvale), and a large number of
dialects are spoken. About two thirds of the population
are followers of Christianity, and there are also a
large number of Muslims and Hindus.
Despite the very high birth rates, population growth
is estimated at 1.9%, which is due to the high infection
rate with the immunodeficiency disease AIDS (16.5%) and
the high infant mortality rate (8%). Almost half of the
population is under the age of 15. Social and health
services are only moderately developed and completely
inadequate in rural areas. The average life expectancy
is around 40 years. Around 80% of Zambians can read and
write; school attendance is required for seven to 14
The constitution dates from 1991. The head of state
in the Republic of Zambia is the president (since
September 2011 Michael Sata), who is also head of the
government and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
He is elected by the people for a term of five years
(one-time re-election possible). He appoints the vice
president and cabinet members.
The National Assembly consists of a chamber with 158
seats; 150 people are elected by the people for five
years, eight are appointed by the president. The House
of Chiefs has 27 members.
Zambia is divided into ten provinces.
Zambia is rich in natural resources and there are
opportunities for prosperous agriculture. The country is
now one of the middle-income countries in the lower
range, but the wealth is extremely unevenly distributed,
60% of the population live below the poverty line.
Agriculture employs over three quarters of Zambians,
and around 20% of GDP is generated here. For their own
use, manioc, millet, rice, vegetables, fruit and sweet
potatoes are grown, and tobacco, cotton and peanuts for
export. The population's food needs cannot be met,
partly due to the recurring droughts. Fishing in the
country's numerous waters is also important in the
The industry focuses on processing copper, Zambia's
most important export commodity. Other industrial
companies manufacture food, textiles, chemical products
and products for the construction industry. Most of the
factories are located near the capital Lusaka and in
Kitwe, Mufulira and Ndola. The most important area in
Zambia's economy is mining: in addition to copper,
cobalt, hard coal, zinc, lead and silver are mined. The
country's energy needs are almost entirely met by
The most important trading partners for exports
(copper, cobalt, electricity, tobacco) are China, India,
the Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Africa.
South Africa is the most important partner for the
import of goods (especially machinery, vehicles, food,
The road network in Zambia covers a total of around
92,000 km, of which an estimated 20,000 km are paved.
Part of the 2,200 km rail belongs to the Tanzania-Zambia
Railway (TAZARA) and is under the control of Tanzania.
Due to the numerous bodies of water, shipping plays an
important role in transport, around 2,250 km are
navigable. There are several international airports in
The currency is the Zambian Kwacha (= 100 Ngwee).