|Republic of Zimbabwe
|Form of government
||US dollars, rand
|Telephone area code
The Zimbabwe Republic is located in south-east
Africa. Its neighbors are Mozambique in the northeast
and east , South Africa in the south, Botswana in the
southwest and Zambia in the northwest .
With an area of 390.759 km², Zimbabwe is roughly
the size of Germany and Belgium combined.
A mountain range runs through the country from
northeast to southwest. The broad ridge is called
Hochveld and reaches heights of up to 1,500 m. In the
north and south, the mountains descend in marked steps
over the so-called Mittelveld (heights between 400 and
800 m above sea level) to the banks of the Zambezi in
the north and the Limpopo in the south. Mount Inyangani
in the far east is the highest elevation in the country
at 2,596 m. In the north the Zambezi rushes over the
famous Victoria Falls and is then dammed up as Lake
The largest city in the country is the capital Harare
with around 1.45 million residents, followed by Bulawayo
Zimbabwe is in the marginal tropical climatic area,
but due to the high altitude it has a temperate climate
with dry, sometimes cool winters (average temperatures
in July approx. 16 กใ C). In the summer month of January
the average temperature is approx. 21 กใ C. Most
precipitation (rainy season from approx.November to
March / April) occurs in the eastern mountain regions
(up to 1,400 mm), while less rain falls in the south.
Flora and fauna
In the rainy areas in the east of Zimbabwe there are
areas with evergreen forest, while in the dry south
there are semi-deserts. The main part of the country is
covered by grass savannas and savannahs with deciduous
trees (baobab, mohobohobo tree).
Large parts of these areas have been cleared for
agricultural use. Not least because of the interests of
tourism, large parts of the country have been declared a
nature reserve. This benefits the species-rich wildlife:
in addition to elephants, giraffes and zebras, there are
also cheetahs, leopards, lions, peregrine falcons and
ospreys. Specimens of the endangered black rhinoceros
also live in these areas. A horn of this animal, praised
as an aphrodisiac, among other things, can still bring
in several thousand dollars on the black market.
Zimbabwe has around 12.75 million residents.
Virtually the entire population consists of black
Africans, the largest ethnic group being the Shona (over
80% of the total population), followed by the Ndebele
group (15%). In addition, small minorities like the
Tonga live in the state. The long tensions between the
two largest ethnic groups have decreased since
independence. The remaining 2% of the population are
Europeans (mostly of British origin), half-breeds and
In the rural areas, the dialects of the corresponding
ethnic groups are predominantly used. Shona and Ndebele,
along with English, are the official languages of
Zimbabwe and are also taught in schools. School
attendance is required in Zimbabwe, and there has been a
university in the capital Harare since 1957. Around 90%
of Zimbabweans can read and write.
According to COUNTRYAAH, 25% of the population are Christians. Around
half of the residents practice a mixture of Christian
and traditional beliefs, which also includes ancestral
worship and belief in spirits. The purely traditional
belief can be found in just under a quarter of the
population. There are also small minorities of Muslims,
Jews and Hindus.
AIDS is a major threat to the Zimbabwean population:
it is assumed that every seventh adult Zimbabwean is
infected with the HIV virus. The extent of the
consequences for the country's social and economic
structures cannot yet be predicted. Even today, the
average life expectancy is only 35 years; infant
mortality is 7%. Due to the crisis in the country,
numerous Zimbabweans are fleeing, especially to South
Africa. Accordingly, the population grows by only 0.5%
every year despite high birth rates.
According to the 2013 constitution, Zimbabwe is a
republic, the president (Robert Gabriel Mugabe since
1987) as head of state is directly elected every five
years and is the top leader of the armed forces. A
one-time re-election is possible. He appoints his
cabinet, which in turn is responsible to the parliament.
The legislature lies with the House of Assembley,
which consists of 210 members. The Senate has 80 members
(60 directly elected, 18 indirectly elected, 2 ex
officio). Elections are made every five years. Every
citizen of Zimbabwe from the age of 18 has the right to
Zimbabwe is divided into eight provinces and two
cities, Harare and Bulawayo.
Zimbabwe's economy has been badly damaged after
decades of mismanagement, corruption and political
unrest. Almost three quarters of the population live
below the poverty line.
The land reform that Mugabe pushed ahead was
accompanied by bloody clashes and massively weakened the
agricultural sector. Around 12% of gross domestic
product (GDP) is still generated here today. There is
extensive cattle farming (including goats, pigs and
sheep). In addition to sugar cane, corn and tea, cotton,
wheat, millet and coffee are also grown. However, many
smallholders have opted for more profitable tobacco
growing, which has reduced food production.
Zimbabwe has rich mineral resources, which include
platinum, gold and diamonds, coal and, above all,
various ores. Mainly consumer goods, machines and fuels
are introduced. Half of these goods are delivered from
South Africa. Exports - minerals, gold, platinum - also
go to South Africa, and China and Zambia are also
The infrastructure has suffered significantly as a
result of inadequate maintenance measures in recent
years, and there are always power shortages.
Harare has an international airport.
The Zimbabwe dollar was abolished and replaced by the
US dollar and the South African rand.